Field Operations Guide

Commonly Used Acronyms and Terms

A. OFDA Acronyms and Terms

AID: U.S. Agency for International Development. Also known as USAID.

ARI: acute respiratory infection.

at-risk population: A group that may suffer the effects of drought, conflict, food insecurity, or other phenomena resulting in humanitarian hardship.

ATA: actual time of arrival.

ATD: actual time of departure.

AU: African Union. An organization, composed of 53 member states, whose aim is to promote peace, security, and solidarityon the African continent.

blended foods: Fortified/processed foods such as wheat-soyablend, corn-soya blend, and soya-fortified bulgur.

BOO: base of operations.

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CIDA: Canadian International Development Agency.

CIDI: Center for International Disaster Information. USAID-funded clearing house for public donations and volunteer information during overseas disasters.

CMM: USAID Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation.

Cold Chain: The refrigerated transportation system for vaccines from the manufacturer to the individual.

COM: Chief of Mission.

Country Team: The senior, in-country U.S. coordinating and supervising body, headed by the Chief of the U.S. diplomatic mission.

CSB: corn-soya blend.

CTC: community therapeutic care.

DART: USAID OFDA Disaster Assistance Response Team.

DASP: OFDA Disaster Assistance Support Program based at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

DCHA: USAID Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance.

DCM: Deputy Chief of Mission.

DFID: British Department for International Development.

DOD: Department of Defense.

DP: displaced person. An individual temporarily uprooted from his or her home.

DRM: OFDA Disaster Response and Mitigation Division.

DSM: dry skim milk.

DTP: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.

DWM: dry whole milk.

EAC: Emergency Action Committee. Organization established at a post for the purpose of directing and coordinating the post’s response to emergency situations.

EC: European Community.

ECHO: European Community Humanitarian Office.

EDRC: OFDA Emergency Disaster Response Coordinator.

EPI: Expanded Program for Immunization.

epicenter: Point on the Earth’s surface directly above the point of origin (focus or hypocenter) of an earthquake.

ETA: estimated time of arrival.

ETD: estimated time of departure.

ETE: estimated time en route.

EU: European Union.

FAA: Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

FAO: UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

FEMA: U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency.

FEWSNET: Famine Early Warning Systems Network.

FFP: USAID Office of Food for Peace.

food basket: The particular selection of food commodities that is handled by the assistance operation and included in the
rations distributed to the target beneficiaries.

food pipeline: The various location points (port of origin, ship on high seas, port of entry, distribution system) and the amount of food going to an affected population.

FY: fiscal year. October 1 to September 30 for the USG.

GAM: global acute malnutrition.

GMT: Greenwich mean time.

GO_: Three-letter abbreviation for Government of ______; e.g., GOK (Government of Kenya) or GOJ (Government of Japan).

GPS: global positioning system.

GTZ: German Technical Assistance Agency.

HA: humanitarian assistance.

HDR: humanitarian daily ration.

HF: high frequency.

HQ: Headquarters.

hurricane: See tropical cyclone.

IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, often referred to as the World Bank.

ICASS: USG International Cooperative Administrative Support Services. Program through which the USG provides and shares the cost of common administrative support at posts overseas.

ICRC: International Committee of the Red Cross.

ICVA: International Council of Voluntary Agencies.

IDA: International Development Association. Part of the World Bank that provides interest-free loans and some grants for programs aimed at boosting economic growth and improving living conditions.

IDP: internally displaced person. A displaced person who is still within the borders of his or her country of origin.

IFRC: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

IO: international organization.

IOM: International Organization for Migration.

JICA: Japanese International Cooperation Agency.

MAM: moderate acute malnutrition.

MCH: maternal and child health.

MDRO: U.S. Embassy’s Mission Disaster Relief Officer.

MDRP: U.S. Embassy’s Mission Disaster Relief Plan.

mitigation: Activities undertaken in advance to limit the adverse impact of disasters.

MOU: memorandum of understanding.

MUAC: mid-upper arm circumference.

NGO: nongovernmental organization. Defined by USAID as any nonprofit or profitmaking organization receiving or providing USAID-funded assistance. General usage of this term in the wider humanitarian community, however, is based on an informal definition that excludes profit making organizations and is not limited to organizations associated with USAID. NGO tends to be synonymous with PVO.

OAS: Organization of American States.

OCHA: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

OFAC: Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control.

OFDA: USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.

OFDA/W: USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance headquarters in Washington, D.C.

OPS: OFDA Operations Division.

ORS: oral rehydration salts.

ORT: oral rehydration therapy.

OSOCC: UN Onsite Operations Coordination Center.

OTI: USAID Office of Transition Initiatives.

PAHO: Pan-American Health Organization.

PEM: protein-energy malnutrition.

PMP: prevention, mitigation, and preparedness.

Post: U.S. Embassy, Consulate, or USAID Mission.

preparedness: Activities undertaken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disasters.

prevention: Activities undertaken in advance to absolutely prevent the adverse impact of disasters.

PRM: Department of State Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration.

PS: OFDA Program Support Division.

PSC: USG Personal Services Contractor.

pulses: Beans, lentils, and peas.

PVO: private voluntary organization. See also NGO.

RefCoord: Department of State Regional Refugee Coordinator.

Reftel: reference telegram.

refugee: A person who is outside his or her country of origin who, because of a well-founded fear of persecution, is unable to return to that country or to prevail upon that country for protection.

SAM: severe acute malnutrition.

satcom: satellite communications system.

SDCA: Swiss Development and Cooperation Agency.

SDR: Swiss Development and Cooperation Agency (SDCA) Office of Swiss Disaster Relief.

Septel: separate telegram.

SFP: Supplementary Feeding Program.

SIDA: Swedish International Development Agency.

sitrep: situation report.

STI: sexually transmitted infection.

TA: USG travel authorization.

TFC: Therapeutic Feeding Center.

TFP: Therapeutic Feeding Program.

tropical cyclone: An intense tropical weather system of strong thunderstorms with a well-defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 119 km/hr or higher. The term hurricane is used for Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones east of the International Dateline to the Greenwich Meridian. The term typhoon is used for Pacific tropical cyclones north of the Equator and west of the International Dateline.

tropical storm: An organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and wind speeds between 64 and 118 km/hr.

tsunami: A system of sea waves that propagate outward from the source region, formed as a result of a large-scale disturbance over a short period of time. The disturbance can be submarine volcanic eruptions, displacement of submarine sediments, coastal landslides, meteor impact, or earthquakes.

typhoon: See tropical cyclone.

UAC: unaccompanied children.

UHF: ultra high frequency.

UN: United Nations.

UNCHR: UN High Commissioner for Refugees.

UNDAC: UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination Team.

UNDP: UN Development Program.

UNICEF: UN Children’s Fund.

UNJLC: UN Joint Logistics Center.

USAID: U.S. Agency for International Development. Also known as AID.

USAR: Urban Search and Rescue.

USD: U.S. dollars.

USG: U.S. Government.

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey.

USPHS: U.S. Public Health Service.

USUN: U.S. Mission to the United Nations.

VHF: very high frequency.

WFP: UN World Food Program.

WHO: UN World Health Organization.

WSB: wheat-soya blend.

Z-Score: Standard deviation above or below the mean.


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