Emergency Indicators and Minimum Standards

Malnutrition Emergency Definitions

Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) = Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) + Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM)

GAM for < 5 age group

Z-Score < -2 MUAC < 13.5 cm WFH/WFL < 80%

SAM for < 5 age group

Z-Score < -3 MUAC < 11.0 cm WFH/WFL < 70%

MAM for < 5 age group

Z-Score >-3 and < -2 MUAC >11.0 and < 13.5 cm WFH/WFL >70% and < 80%

See section D of chapter III, Interpretation of Malnutrition Rates and Corresponding Actions, for malnutrition indicators.

Mortality Rate Emergency Indicators

Crude Mortality Rate (CMR): single most important indicator of serious stress in affected populations

CMR = deaths/10,000/day: emergency phase

< 1 = Under control
>1 = Serious condition
>2 = Out of control
>4 = Major catastrophe

Mortality rate for < 5 age group

1 = Normal in a developing country
< 2 = Emergency phase: under control
>2 = Emergency phase: in serious trouble
>3 = Emergency phase: out of control

Minimum Water Requirements

  • Minimum maintenance = 15 liters/person/day
  • Feeding centers = 30 liters/inpatient/day
  • Health centers and hospitals = 40-60 liters/inpatient/day
  • 1 tap stand/250 people not >100m from users
  • A large quantity of reasonably safe water is preferable to a small amount of pure water

Minimum Food Requirements

Minimum maintenance = 2,100 Kcals/person/day

Minimum Shelter/Space Requirements

Minimum shelter space = 3.5 m2/person

Minimum total site area = 45 m2/person for temporary planned or self-settled camps

Minimum Sanitation Requirements

At least 1 toilet for every 20 persons
Maximum of 1 minute walk from dwelling to toilet (≥6m and ≤50m)

Last updated: February 24, 2006

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