Monitoring and Evaluation

A. Monitoring

Monitoring may be defined as the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and use of data that occurs during the course of a project. The purpose of monitoring is to determine whether a project or program is being implemented as designed and is having the intended results. Good monitoring offers steady direction to project implementation and enhances performance, transparency, accountability, and quality reporting.

Common themes to consider when monitoring are project status, accomplishments, challenges, changes in context and beneficiaries, trends, partner performance, cost effectiveness, general observations, and followup issues. Monitoring should take into account the framework of the program, meaning the objectives, activities, their affiliated expected results, and the indicators by which progress will be measured. Good indicators are direct, objective, practical, adequate, and replicable. A combination of qualitative and quantitative indicators should be used to ensure a well-balanced representation of the program. Quantitative data often includes such information as commodity distribution, activity output, or beneficiary reach, whereas qualitative data might rank changes in confidence levels, behavior, or attitudes.

Primary monitoring tools for data collection are partner reports, official cables, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, random surveys, and direct observation. Performance monitoring plans (PMPs) are also considered strong monitoring tools that serve to gauge program progress. PMPs are designed primarily for project implementers and include the framework of the program (objectives, activities, expected results, and indicators) as well as baseline data, activity targets, beneficiary details, a reporting schedule, and the persons responsible for collecting and disseminating the data.

The primary responsibility for collecting and using monitoring data on a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) falls to the planning function, although this responsibility, to a certain degree, applies to all DART Team members. Recommendations for monitoring include making the process highly participatory and decentralizing the use of streamlined tools, to the extent possible, to encourage data integrity.

B. Evaluation

Evaluation may be thought of as the periodic review of program activity outcome and impact, with an emphasis on lessons learned. Evaluations are reflective by nature and take into account performance and beneficiary reach. The results are often used when considering programmatic options and to guide future strategic and funding decisions. In terms of timing, evaluations are typically conducted at the end of a program or midway for programs of long duration. Best practices suggest the following themes be considered when conducting evaluations: relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, coverage, coherence, sustain-ability, and connectedness/coordination.

Miscellaneous Conversion Information

Celsius to Fahrenheit

(Celsius x 1.8) + 32 = Fahrenheit



Fahrenheit to Celsius

(Fahrenheit - 32) / 1.8 = Celsius



Weight of Water by Volume (at 16.7°°C or 62°°F)

  • 1 liter = 1 kilogram
  • 1 U.K. gallon = 10 pounds
  • 1 U.K. gallon = 1.2 U.S. gallons
  • 1 U.K. gallon = 4.54 liters
  • 1 U.S. gallon = 0.833 U.K. gallons
  • 1 U.S. gallon = 8.33 pounds
  • 1 U.S. gallon = 3.79 liters
  • 1 liter = 0.26 gallons
  • 1 cubic foot of water = 62.3 pounds (7.48 gallons)

Distance

1 nautical mile = 1.152 statute miles = 1.852 kilometers



How To Calculate Area and Volume

Area = Width x Length

Area of a circle = πr2
where π= 3.14
r = 1/2 the diameter of a circle

Volume = Width x Length x Height

Volume of a cylinder = πr2H or πr2L
where: H = height of cylinder
L = length of cylinder

Metric to English Conversion Factors

To convert

into

multiply by

Lengths

millimeters

inches

0.0394

centimeters

inches

0.3937

meters

inches

39.3700

meters

feet

3.2808

meters

yards

1.0936

kilometers

yards

1093.6133

kilometers

miles

0.6214

Surfaces

square centimeters

square inches

0.1550

square meters

square feet

10.7639

square meters

square yards

1.1960

square kilometers

square miles

0.3861

hectares

acres

2.4710

Volumes

cubic centimeters

cubic inches

0.06102

cubic centimeters

liquid ounces

0.03381

cubic meters

cubic feet

35.31467

cubic meters

cubic yards

1.30795

cubic meters

gallons (U.S.)

264.17205

liters

cubic inches

61.02374

liters

cubic feet

0.03531

liters

gallons (U.S.)

0.26417

milliliters

teaspoon

0.20289

milliliters

tablespoon

0.06763

milliliters

fluid ounces

0.03381

liters

cups

4.22675

liters

pints

2.11338

liters

quarts

1.05669

Weights

grams

grains

15.4324

grams

ounces

0.0353

kilograms

ounces

35.2740

kilograms

pounds

2.2046

kilograms

tons (U.S.)

0.001102

kilograms

tons (long)

0.000984

tons (metric)

pounds

2204.6226

tons (metric)

tons (U.S.)

1.1023

tons (metric)

tons (long)

0.9842

Lengths

inches

millimeters

25.4

inches

centimeters

2.54

inches

meters

0.0254

feet

meters

0.3048

yards

kilometers

0.0009

yards

meters

0.9144

miles

kilometers

1.6093

Surfaces

square inches

square centimeters

6.4516

square feet

square meters

0.0929

square yards

square meters

0.8361

square miles

square kilometers

2.5900

acres

hectares

0.4047

Volumes

cubic inches

cubic centimeters

16.387064

cubic inches

liters

0.016387

cubic feet

cubic meters

0.028317

cubic feet

liters

28.316847

cubic yards

cubic meters

0.764555

liquid ounces

cubic centimeters

29.573530

gallons (U.S.)

cubic meters

0.003785

gallons (U.S.)

liters

3.785412

teaspoons

milliliters

4.928922

tablespoons

milliliters

14.786765

fluid ounces

milliliters

29.573530

cups

liters

0.236589

pints

liters

0.473176

quarts

liters

0.946353

Weights

grains

grams

0.064799

ounces

grams

28.349523

ounces

kilograms

0.028350

pounds

kilograms

0.453592

pounds

tons (metric)

0.000454

tons (U.S.)

kilograms

907.184740

tons (U.S.)

tons (metric)

0.907185

tons (long)

kilograms

1016.046909

tons (long)

tons (metric)

1.016047

Last updated: May 18, 2017

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Monitoring and Evaluation ID - 502088 Y1 - 2017/05/18/ PB - Field Operations Guide UR - https://relief.unboundmedicine.com/relief/view/Field-Operations-Guide/502088/all/Monitoring_and_Evaluation ER -