World Factbook

Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda

Background:
The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
Country comparison to the world: 201
Land: 442.6 sq km
Water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
153 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources:
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
Arable land: 9.09%
Permanent crops: 2.27%
Other: 88.64% (2011)

Irrigated land:
1.3 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
0.05 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)
Per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
Adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups:
black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)

Languages:
English (official), local dialects

Religions:
Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)

Population:
90,156 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.7% (male 11,333/female 10,979)
15-24 years: 16.7% (male 7,465/female 7,622)
25-54 years: 42.8% (male 17,638/female 20,930)
55-64 years: 8.6% (male 3,530/female 4,229)
65 years and over: 7.1% (male 2,771/female 3,659) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 47.2 %
Youth dependency ratio: 36.7 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 10.5 %
Potential support ratio: 9.5 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 30.8 years
Male: 29.1 years
Female: 32.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.26% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Birth rate:
16.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Death rate:
5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Net migration rate:
2.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Urbanization:
Urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 27,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 13.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 122
Male: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 11.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 75.91 years
Country comparison to the world: 87
Male: 73.85 years
Female: 78.07 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.04 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Physicians density:
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (1999)

Hospital bed density:
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 91% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 9% of population (2000 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 95% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 5% of population (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.6% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Education expenditures:
2.5% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
Total population: 99%
Male: 98.4%
Female: 99.4% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 14 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 19.9%
Country comparison to the world: 59
Male: 18.4%
Female: 21.6% (2001)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type:
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm

Capital:
Name: Saint John's
Geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence:
1 November 1981 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution:
1 November 1981

Legal system:
common law based on the English model

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
Head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
Elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%, other 0.8%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
note - Antigua and Barbuda replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London as the final appellate court; also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts

Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
Chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
Telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
Consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

National anthem:
Name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"

Lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009-11. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.605 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195
$1.58 billion (2011 est.)
$1.628 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.176 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145
-3% (2011 est.)
-8.5% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$18,300 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75
$18,000 (2011 est.)
$18,600 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 27.3%
Government consumption: 23.9%
Investment in fixed capital: 91.5%
Investment in inventories: -37.3%
Exports of goods and services: 58.2%
Imports of goods and services: -63.6%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2.3%
Industry: 18.3%
Services: 79.4% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Industries:
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
30,000 (1991)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 7%
Industry: 11%
Services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate:
11% (2001 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $229.5 million
Expenditures: $293.4 million (2009 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
19.5% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Public debt:
89% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20
130% of GDP (2010 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
3.3% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77
10.93% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$208.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174
$223.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.131 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167
$1.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.185 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154
$1.134 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance:
-$200 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77
-$120.1 million (2011 est.)

Exports:
$37.9 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199
$43.45 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals

Imports:
$400 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192
$427 million (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Debt - external:
$441.2 million (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 175
$458 million (June 2010)

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)

Energy

Electricity - production:
115 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Electricity - consumption:
107 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
27,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 191

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
5,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Refined petroleum products - exports:
239.5 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Refined petroleum products - imports:
4,662 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
718,800 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
35,500 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Telephones - mobile cellular:
176,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Telephone system:
General assessment: good automatic telephone system
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons
International: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)

Internet country code:
.ag

Internet hosts:
11,532 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Internet users:
65,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Transportation

Airports:
3 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 1,165 km
Country comparison to the world: 182
Paved: 384 km
Unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Merchant marine:
Total: 1,257
Country comparison to the world: 9
By type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
Foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Saint John's

Military

Military branches:
Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 21,141
Females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 17,676
Females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 806
Female: 799 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Illicit drugs:
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

Flag of Antigua and Barbuda



Flag description:
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand