World Factbook

Azerbaijan

Introduction

Middle East :: Azerbaijan

Background:
Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous region within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the United States, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors. In January 2012, Azerbaijan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

Geography

Location:
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates:
40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references:
Middle East

Area:
Total: 86,600 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 113
Land: 82,629 sq km
Water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,013 km
Border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain:
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
Highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite

Land use:
Arable land: 21.78%
Permanent crops: 2.62%
Other: 75.6% (2011)

Irrigated land:
14,250 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
34.68 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 12.21 cu km/yr (4%/18%/78%)
Per capita: 1,384 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:
droughts

Environment - current issues:
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Azerbaijani(s)
Adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups:
Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Languages:
Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)

Religions:
Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Population:
9,590,159 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22.6% (male 1,164,189/female 1,006,483)
15-24 years: 18.3% (male 905,277/female 849,642)
25-54 years: 44.9% (male 2,092,945/female 2,209,623)
55-64 years: 7.9% (male 350,068/female 410,765)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 229,244/female 371,923) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 38.5 %
Youth dependency ratio: 30.8 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.8 %
Potential support ratio: 12.9 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 29.8 years
Male: 28.2 years
Female: 31.6 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.01% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Birth rate:
17.17 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Death rate:
7.11 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Urbanization:
Urban population: 53.6% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BAKU (capital) 2.123 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
24.4 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
43 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 27.69 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 70
Male: 28.46 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 26.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 71.61 years
Country comparison to the world: 142
Male: 68.65 years
Female: 74.97 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.92 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
51.1% (2006)

Health expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Physicians density:
3.79 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
7.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 80% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 20% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 86% of population
rural: 78% of population
total: 82% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 14% of population
rural: 22% of population
total: 18% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3,600 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23.8% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
8.4% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.8%
Male: 99.9%
Female: 99.7% (2010 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 106,626
Percentage: 7 % (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 14.7%
Country comparison to the world: 86
Male: 14.2%
Female: 15.2% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
Conventional short form: Azerbaijan
Local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
Local short form: Azarbaycan
Former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
Geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
Time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
Rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
Cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax

Independence:
30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)

National holiday:
Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution:
adopted 12 November 1995; modified by referendum 24 August 2002

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
Head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 15 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
Election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 89%, Igbal AGAZADE 2.9%, other 8.1%
note: several political parties boycotted the election due to perceived unfair conditions; OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 7 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - YAP 45.8%, CSP 1.6%, Motherland 1.4%, independents 48.2%, other 3.1%; seats by party - YAP 71, CSP 3, Motherland 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Great Creation 1, Hope Party 1, Social Welfare 1, Civil Unity 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Justice 1, independents 42

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairman, and at least 24 judges in plenum sessions); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;

Political parties and leaders:
Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALALOGLU]
Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party [Sabir HACIYEV]
Classic People's Front of Azerbaijan [Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU]
Democratic Reforms Party or PDR [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Great Creation Party [Fazil Gazanfaroglu MUSTAFAYEV]
Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]
Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAYILOV]
Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA, Avaz TEMIRKHAN]
Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]
Musavat (Equality) [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]
Open Society Party [Sulhaddin AKBAR, Rasul GULIYEV (in exile in the US)]
Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]
Social Welfare Party [Hussein KAZIMLI]
United Popular Azerbaijan Front Party or AXCP [Ali KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
note:
opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Azerbaijan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]
Karabakh Liberation Organization
Forum of Intelligentsia [Rustam IBRAHIMBEYOV]
Public Chamber
Republican Alternative (REAL) [Ilgar MAMMADOV]
NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI]
Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV]
Ireli Youth Movement [Rauf MERDIYEV]
Ol! Youth Movement [Vugar SALAMLI]

International organization participation:
ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV
Chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Richard L. MORNINGSTAR
Embassy: 83 Azadlig Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
Mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
Telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671

National symbol(s):
flames of fire

National anthem:
Name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)

Lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

Economy

Economy - overview:
Azerbaijan's high economic growth during 2006-10 was attributable to large and growing oil and gas exports, but some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth, including construction, banking, and real estate. In 2012, economic growth picked up to 3.8%. Continued production declines in the oil sector were offset by strong growth in the non-oil sector. However, the non-oil sector growth may be driven primarily by government investment, which may not be sustainable if oil production continues to decline. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The eventual completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another, albeit, smaller source of revenue from gas exports. Azerbaijan has made only limited progress on instituting market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to negotiate export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to use its energy wealth to promote growth and spur employment in non-energy sectors of the economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$98.36 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75
$96.28 billion (2011 est.)
$96.19 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$68.8 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129
0.1% (2011 est.)
5% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,700 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113
$10,600 (2011 est.)
$10,700 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
41.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8
45.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
46.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 39.6%
Government consumption: 10.3%
Investment in fixed capital: 22.5%
Investment in inventories: 0.1%
Exports of goods and services: 50.9%
Imports of goods and services: -23.5%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 6%
Industry: 63.8%
Services: 30.2% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
-2.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Labor force:
6.206 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 38.3%
Industry: 12.1%
Services: 49.6% (2008)

Unemployment rate:
1% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 6
6% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.4%
Highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.7 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 95
36.5 (2001)

Budget:
Revenues: $22 billion
Expenditures: $21.77 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
32% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Public debt:
5.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149
7.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36
8.1% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
5.25% (31 December 2011 est.)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
18.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19
19% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$14.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
$11.22 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$17.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89
$13.19 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$17.01 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
$12.72 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
$12.3 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
$17.15 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$30.96 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$34.49 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners:
Italy 25.9%, France 7.7%, India 6.7%, Indonesia 6.6%, Germany 5.6%, Israel 5.1% (2012)

Imports:
$10.06 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97
$10.17 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners:
Turkey 18.6%, Russia 14.3%, China 7.8%, Germany 7.2%, UK 7.1%, US 5.1%, Ukraine 5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$11.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$10.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$7.608 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107
$7.492 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$11.85 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81
$10.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$6.923 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
$6.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
0.7857 (2012 est.)
0.7897 (2011 est.)
0.8027 (2010 est.)
0.8038 (2009)
0.8219 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
20 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Electricity - consumption:
13.48 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Electricity - exports:
380 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Electricity - imports:
110 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
5.798 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
82.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
17.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102

Crude oil - production:
987,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20

Crude oil - exports:
821,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Crude oil - proved reserves:
7 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20

Refined petroleum products - production:
161,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
168,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Refined petroleum products - exports:
63,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,426 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Natural gas - production:
16.68 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Natural gas - consumption:
9.921 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Natural gas - exports:
6.755 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Natural gas - proved reserves:
849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 26

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
35.12 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.684 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.12 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Telephone system:
General assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with four providers in 2009
Domestic: teledensity of 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased and now exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan)
International: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2011)

Broadcast media:
3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)

Internet country code:
.az

Internet hosts:
46,856 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Internet users:
2.42 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Transportation

Airports:
37 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 30
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 7
Under 914 m:
7 (2013)

Heliports:
1 (2012)

Pipelines:
condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 2,918 km
Country comparison to the world: 57
Broad gauge: 2,918 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2009)

Roadways:
Total: 52,942 km
Country comparison to the world: 77
Paved: 26,789 km
Unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
Total: 90
Country comparison to the world: 53
By type: cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2
Foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
Registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea

Military

Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
men between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; length of service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,354,249
Females age 16-49: 2,334,632 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,773,993
Females age 16-49: 1,964,012 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 76,923
Female: 71,024 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 600,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2013)
Stateless persons: 3,585 (2012)

Illicit drugs:
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe

Flag of Azerbaijan



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon is an Islamic symbol, while the eight-pointed star represents the eight Turkic peoples of the world