Introduction

Europe :: Andorra

Background:
The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees Mountains between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified, with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. In the late 20th century, Andorra became a popular tourist destination. An estimated 10 million people visit each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty free goods. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its banking facilities, low taxes, and lack of customs duties. However, recent economic hardships have required Andorra to start taxing foreign investments and to implement stricter economic policies. Andorra is not a member of the European Union, but enjoys a special relationship with it and uses the Euro as its national currency.

Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 468 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 196
Land: 468 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
Total: 120.3 km
Border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain:
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
Highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
Arable land: 5.32%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 94.68% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
avalanches

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Andorran(s)
Adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Languages:
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Religions:
Roman Catholic (predominant)

Population:
85,293 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 6,779/female 6,471)
15-24 years: 9.1% (male 4,021/female 3,702)
25-54 years: 49.5% (male 21,744/female 20,492)
55-64 years: 12.1% (male 5,566/female 4,755)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 5,918/female 5,845) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 41.8 years
Male: 42 years
Female: 41.5 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.22% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Birth rate:
8.88 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 212

Death rate:
6.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Urbanization:
Urban population: 88% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 23,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 204
Male: 3.71 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 82.58 years
Country comparison to the world: 6
Male: 80.46 years
Female: 84.83 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Health expenditures:
7.5% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Physicians density:
3.72 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.2% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Education expenditures:
2.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 12 years (2008)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
Conventional short form: Andorra
Local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Local short form: Andorra

Government type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces' representatives

Capital:
Name: Andorra la Vella
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence:
1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Seu d'Urgell)

National holiday:
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution:
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil and customary law with canon (religious) law influences

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: French Coprince Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Christian FREMONT (since September 2008) and Spanish Coprince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i Oste (since 30 July 2003)
Head of government: Head of Government (or Cap de Govern) Antoni MARTI PETIT (since 12 May 2011)
Cabinet: Executive Council of nine ministers designated by the Head of Government
Elections: Head of Government elected by the General Council (Andorran Parliament) and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
Election results: Antoni MARTI PETIT was elected Head of Government; percent of General Council vote - 79%; note - the leader of the party which wins a majority of seats in the General Council is usually elected Head of Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms); note - each voter casts two separate ballots - one for the national list, one for the parish list
Elections: last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - DA 55%, PS 35%, Andorra for Change 7%, VA 3%; seats by party - DA 22, PS 6; note - numbers of votes and percentages are for the respective national list; number of seats include seats won by the parish lists

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the Coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates appointed 2 by the Coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to two consecutive 8-year terms
Subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts

Political parties and leaders:
there are four political parties at the national level:
Andorra for Change or ApC [Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]
Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT], coalition including Liberal Party (PRA) and Reformist Coalition
Greens of Andorra or VA [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]
Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]
note: there are also several smaller parties at the Parish level (one is Lauredian Union)

International organization participation:
CE, FAO, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Narcis CASAL de Fonsdeviela
Chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
Telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

National anthem:
Name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
Lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS
note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tourism, retail sales, and finance are the mainstays of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounting for more than three-quarters of GDP. Andorra's duty-free status for some products and its summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually, although the economic downturn in neighboring countries has curtailed tourism activity. The banking sector also contributes substantially to the economy. Andorra's comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened; its bank secrecy laws have been relaxed under pressure from the EU and OECD. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products. Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Slower growth in Spain and France has dimmed Andorra's economic prospects. Since 2010, a drop in tourism contributed to a contraction in GDP and a sharp deterioration of public finances, prompting the government to begin implementing several austerity measures to reduce the budget deficit, including levying a special corporate tax. To bring in new revenue and diversify future sources of economic growth, the government approved in July 2012 a new foreign investment law opening investment to foreign capital.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.163 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180
$3.214 billion (2011 est.)
$3.227 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.8 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 205
-0.4% (2011 est.)
-1.9% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$37,200 (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36
$37,700 (2010 est.)
$37,900 (2009 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 79%
Services: 6% (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products:
small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries:
tourism (particularly skiing), banking, tobacco, cattle raising, timber, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
36,060 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 0.4%
Industry: 4.7%
Services: 94.9% (2010)

Unemployment rate:
2.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 23
1.9% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $403 million
Expenditures: $470 million (2011)

Taxes and other revenues:
8.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14
-2.5% (2011 est.)

Exports:
$70 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192
$72 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
tobacco products, furniture

Imports:
$1.43 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173
$1.501 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, food, electricity

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
91.24 million kWh (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Electricity - consumption:
562.4 million kWh (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity - exports:
1 million kWh (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - imports:
587 million kWh (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
38,400 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Telephones - mobile cellular:
65,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern automatic telephone system
Domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
International: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain (2012)

Broadcast media:
1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2012)

Internet country code:
.ad

Internet hosts:
28,383 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Internet users:
67,100 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Transportation

Roadways:
Total: 320 km (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 203

Military

Military branches:
no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2011)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 22,390 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 17,977
Females age 16-49: 17,069 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 397
Female: 347 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Andorra



Flag description:
three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem