World Factbook

American Samoa

Introduction

Australia-Oceania :: American Samoa (territory of the US)

Background:
Settled as early as 1000 B.C., Samoa was not reached by European explorers until the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

Geography

Location:
Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates:
14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references:
Oceania

Area:
Total: 199 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 216
Land: 199 sq km
Water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
116 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Lata Mountain 964 m

Natural resources:
pumice, pumicite

Land use:
Arable land: 9.5%
Permanent crops: 15%
Other: 75.5% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
typhoons common from December to March
Volcanism: limited volcanic activity on the Ofu and Olosega Islands; neither has erupted since the 19th century

Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note:
Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: American Samoan(s) (US nationals)
Adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups:
native Pacific islander 91.6%, Asian 2.8%, white 1.1%, mixed 4.2%, other 0.3% (2000 census)

Languages:
Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%, other 2%
note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)

Religions:
Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%

Population:
54,719 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.2% (male 6,809/female 7,005)
15-24 years: 20.9% (male 5,657/female 5,760)
25-54 years: 41.5% (male 11,662/female 11,028)
55-64 years: 7.7% (male 2,096/female 2,134)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,189/female 1,379) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 27.8 years
Male: 28.3 years
Female: 27.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.4% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 221

Birth rate:
22.84 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Death rate:
4.62 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Net migration rate:
-22.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 222

Urbanization:
Urban population: 93% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
PAGO PAGO (capital) 64,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 9.15 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 150
Male: 11.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 6.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 74.68 years
Country comparison to the world: 106
Male: 71.73 years
Female: 77.8 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.04 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
74.6% (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 1

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 97% (1980 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
Conventional short form: American Samoa
Abbreviation: AS

Dependency status:
unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
NA

Capital:
Name: Pago Pago
Geographic coordinates: 14 16 S, 170 42 W
Time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence:
none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution:
ratified 2 June 1966; amended 2008

Legal system:
mixed legal system of US common law and customary law

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Head of government: Governor Lolo Matalasi MOLIGA (since 3 January 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors
Elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 November 2012 with a runoff election held on 20 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
Election results: runoff election percent of vote - Lolo Matalasi MOLIGA 52.9%, Faoa Aitofele SUNIA 47.1%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (21 seats; 20 members are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms)
Elections: House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); Senate - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
Election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 20; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independents 18
note: American Samoa elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); results - Eni F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): High Court of American Samoa (consists of the chief justice, associate chief justice, and 6 Samoan associate judges and organized into trial, family, drug, and appellate divisions)
note - American Samoa has no US federal courts
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice and associate chief justice appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior to serve for life; Samoan associate judges appointed by the governor to serve for life
Subordinate courts: district and village courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]
Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Population Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)

International organization participation:
AOSIS, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of the US)

National anthem:
Name: "Amerika Samoa" (American Samoa)
Lyrics/music: Mariota Tiumalu TUIASOSOPO/Napoleon Andrew TUITELELEAPAGA
note: local anthem adopted 1950; as a territory of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)

Economy

Economy - overview:
American Samoa has a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US with which American Samoa conducts most of its commerce. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector with canned tuna the primary export. The two tuna canneries account for 80% of employment. In late September 2009, an earthquake and the resulting tsunami devastated American Samoa and nearby Samoa, disrupting transportation and power generation, and resulting in about 200 deaths. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency is overseeing a relief program of nearly $25 million. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism is a promising developing sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$575.3 million (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 214
$510.1 million (2003 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$462.2 million (2005)

GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2003)
Country comparison to the world: 108

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$8,000 (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133
$5,800 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture - products:
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Industries:
tuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
17,630 (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Unemployment rate:
29.8% (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $155.4 million (FY07)
Expenditures: $183.6 million (2007)

Taxes and other revenues:
33.6% of GDP (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.1% of GDP (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%

Exports:
$445.6 million (FY04 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Exports - commodities:
canned tuna 93%

Imports:
$308.8 million (FY04 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Imports - commodities:
raw materials for canneries, food, petroleum products, machinery and parts

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used

Energy

Electricity - production:
190 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Electricity - consumption:
176.7 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
60,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 3

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
5,115 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Refined petroleum products - imports:
2,697 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
688,800 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
10,400 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Telephone system:
General assessment: good telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services
Domestic: domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
International: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:
3 TV stations; multi-channel pay TV services are available; about a dozen radio stations, some of which are repeater stations (2009)

Internet country code:
.as

Internet hosts:
2,387 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Internet users:
NA

Transportation

Airports:
3 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 3
Over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 241 km (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Pago Pago

Military

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 14,562
Females age 16-49: 14,129 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 775
Female: 762 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island (Olosega) in its 2006 draft independence constitution

Flag of American Samoa



Flag description:
blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a war club known as a "Fa'alaufa'i" (upper; left talon), and a coconut fiber fly whisk known as a "Fue" (lower; right talon); the combination of symbols broadly mimics that seen on the US Great Seal and reflects the relationship between the United States and American Samoa