Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: Anguilla (overseas territory of the UK)

Background:
Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 91 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 227
Land: 91 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about one-half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
61 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 3 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:
the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Anguillan(s)
Adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other 1.5% (2001 census)

Languages:
English (official)

Religions:
Protestant 83.1% (Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%), Roman Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified 4.3% (2001 census)

Population:
15,754 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 220

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23.5% (male 1,899/female 1,807)
15-24 years: 14.3% (male 1,116/female 1,138)
25-54 years: 45.2% (male 3,223/female 3,890)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 703/female 695)
65 years and over: 8.1% (male 631/female 652) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 33.9 years
Male: 32.2 years
Female: 35.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.11% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Birth rate:
12.82 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155

Death rate:
4.44 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 203

Net migration rate:
12.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Urbanization:
Urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
THE VALLEY (capital) 2,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 3.42 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 212
Male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 81.09 years
Country comparison to the world: 20
Male: 78.51 years
Female: 83.74 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
43%
note: percent of women aged 15-45 (2003)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 60% of population
total: 60% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 40% of population
total: 40% of population (2000 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
total: 99% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
total: 1% of population (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Literacy:
Definition: age 12 and over can read and write
Total population: 95%
Male: 95%
Female: 95% (1984 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2008)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
NA

Capital:
Name: The Valley
Geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)

Constitution:
Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system:
common law based on the English model

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Christina SCOTT (since 23 July 2013)
Head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 February 2010)
Cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 15 February 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AUM 4, AUF 2, APP 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Anguilla; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; High Court judges reside in 7 member states, though none resides on Anguilla
Judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Brent DAVIS]
Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA)
Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]

International organization participation:
Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

National symbol(s):
dolphin

National anthem:
Name: "God Bless Anguilla"
Lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON
note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 221
$191.7 million (2008 est.)
$108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-8.5% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 219

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$12,200 (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 79.1%
Government consumption: 17.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
Exports of goods and services: 45.5%
Imports of goods and services: -68.3%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2.2%
Industry: 28.5%
Services: 69.4% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries:
tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
6,049 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 220

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4%
Manufacturing: 3%
Construction: 18%
Transportation and utilities: 10%
Commerce: 36%
Services: 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8% (2002)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Population below poverty line:
23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $22.8 million
Expenditures: $22.5 million (2009 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
13% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Public debt:
20.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127
21.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133
6.1% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96
9.29% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$17.16 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188
$16.83 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$383.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184
$375.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$515.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170
$503.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance:
-$68.37 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66
-$54.33 million (2011 est.)

Exports:
$12.7 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208
$12.2 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Imports:
$139.1 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207
$140.1 million (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Debt - external:
$8.8 million (1998)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.), 2.7 (2009)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
6,200 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Telephones - mobile cellular:
26,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern internal telephone system
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 170 per 100 persons
International: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2011)

Broadcast media:
1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned (2007)

Internet country code:
.ai

Internet hosts:
269 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Internet users:
3,700 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Transportation

Airports:
2 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 175 km
Country comparison to the world: 210
Paved: 82 km
Unpaved: 93 km (2004)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay

Military

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 3,641 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 3,009
Females age 16-49: 3,397 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 111
Female: 113 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

Flag of Anguilla



Flag description:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength