Central America and Caribbean :: Anguilla (overseas territory of the UK)

Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.


Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates:
18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Total: 91 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 227
Land: 91 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about one-half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

61 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 3 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources:
salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (2011)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:
frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues:
supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note:
the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People and Society

Noun: Anguillan(s)
Adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups:
black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other 1.5% (2001 census)

English (official)

Protestant 83.1% (Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%), Roman Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified 4.3% (2001 census)

16,086 (July 2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 221

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23.3% (male 1,918/female 1,826)
15-24 years: 14.1% (male 1,123/female 1,144)
25-54 years: 45% (male 3,269/female 3,965)
55-64 years: 9.4% (male 744/female 763)
65 years and over: 8.3% (male 658/female 676) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Median age:
Total: 34.1 years
Male: 32.4 years
Female: 35.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.06% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Birth rate:
12.68 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 157

Death rate:
4.54 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Net migration rate:
12.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 11

Urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
THE VALLEY (capital) 2,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 210
Male: 3.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 81.2 years
Country comparison to the world: 21
Male: 78.61 years
Female: 83.86 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
note: percent of women aged 15-45 (2003)

Drinking water source:
urban: 94.6% of population
total: 94.6% of population
urban: 5.4% of population
total: 5.4% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population
urban: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Definition: age 12 and over can read and write
Total population: 95%
Male: 95%
Female: 95% (1984 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2008)


Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Anguilla

Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK

Government type:

Name: The Valley
Geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)

several previous; latest 1 April 1982; amended 1990 (2013)

Legal system:
common law based on the English model

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Christina SCOTT (since 23 July 2013)
Head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 February 2010)
Cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 15 February 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AUM 4, AUF 2, APP 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Anguilla; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; High Court judges reside in 7 member states, though none resides on Anguilla
Judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Brent DAVIS]
Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA)
Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]

International organization participation:
Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

National symbol(s):

National anthem:
Name: "God Bless Anguilla"
Lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON
note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)


Economy - overview:
Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 221
$191.7 million (2008 est.)
$108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$175.4 million (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-8.5% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 219

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$12,200 (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 74.5%
Government consumption: 20.1%
Investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
Exports of goods and services: 43.7%
Imports of goods and services: -60.4%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2.5%
Industry: 23.6%
Services: 73.8% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Labor force:
6,049 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 220

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4%
Manufacturing: 3%
Construction: 18%
Transportation and utilities: 10%
Commerce: 36%
Services: 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8% (2002)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Population below poverty line:
23% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Revenues: $69.52 million
Expenditures: $78.37 million (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
39.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 45

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Public debt:
20% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135
21.7% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.1% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117
4.4% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 55
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93
9.38% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$16.89 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$384.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183
$373.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$498.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167
$483.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$54.3 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
-$44.8 million (2012 est.)

$12.2 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211
$7.3 million (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

$140.1 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207
$129.3 million (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Debt - external:
$8.8 million (1998)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.), 2.7 (2009)


Telephones - main lines in use:
6,000 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 207

Telephones - mobile cellular:
26,000 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern internal telephone system
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 170 per 100 persons
International: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2011)

Broadcast media:
1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
269 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Internet users:
3,700 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 208


2 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Total: 175 km
Country comparison to the world: 210
Paved: 82 km
Unpaved: 93 km (2004)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay


Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 3,641 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 3,009
Females age 16-49: 3,397 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 111
Female: 113 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

Flag of Anguilla

Flag description:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength


"Anguilla." World Factbook, Relief Central, Accessed 24 April 2019.
Anguilla. World Factbook. Accessed April 24, 2019.
Anguilla. In World Factbook. Available from
Anguilla [Internet]. In: World Factbook. [cited 2019 April 24]. Available from:
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Anguilla ID - 563017 BT - The World Factbook 2014 UR - DB - Relief Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -