World Factbook

Bangladesh

Introduction

South Asia :: Bangladesh

Background:
Muslim conversions and settlement in the region now referred to as Bangladesh began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971, although at least 300,000 civilians died in the process. The post-independence, AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternately held power since then, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has made great progress in food security since independence, and the economy has grown at an average of about 6 percent over the last two decades.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates:
24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references:
Asia

Area:
Total: 143,998 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 95
Land: 130,168 sq km
Water: 13,830 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Iowa

Land boundaries:
Total: 4,246 km
Border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline:
580 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

Climate:
tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources:
natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use:
Arable land: 52.97%
Permanent crops: 6.25%
Other: 40.78% (2011)

Irrigated land:
50,500 sq km (2008)

Total renewable water resources:
1,227 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 35.87 cu km/yr (10%/2%/88%)
Per capita: 238.3 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards:
droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues:
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Bangladeshi(s)
Adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups:
Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)

Languages:
Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Religions:
Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)

Population:
163,654,860 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 27,393,912/female 26,601,199)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 14,337,930/female 16,377,785)
25-54 years: 37.6% (male 29,091,046/female 32,455,670)
55-64 years: 5.7% (male 4,775,062/female 4,625,192)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 3,918,341/female 4,078,723) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 53.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 46 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.3 %
Potential support ratio: 13.6 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 23.9 years
Male: 23.4 years
Female: 24.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.59% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Birth rate:
22.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Death rate:
5.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Net migration rate:
-0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136

Urbanization:
Urban population: 28.4% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 2.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
DHAKA (capital) 15.391 million; Chittagong 4.816 million; Khulna 1.636 million; Rajshahi 853,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.1 (2007 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 45
Male: 49.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 44.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 70.36 years
Country comparison to the world: 150
Male: 68.48 years
Female: 72.31 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
61.2% (2011/12)

Health expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 176

Physicians density:
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 81% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 19% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 57% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 56% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 43% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 44% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,300 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
Water contact disease: leptospirosis
Animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
41.3% (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 4

Education expenditures:
2.2% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 57.7%
Male: 62%
Female: 53.4% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 8 years
Male: 8 years
Female: 8 years (2007)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 4,485,497
Percentage: 13 % (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 9.3%
Country comparison to the world: 112
Male: 8%
Female: 13.6% (2005)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
Conventional short form: Bangladesh
Local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
Local short form: Bangladesh
Former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Dhaka
Geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
Time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
7 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet

Independence:
16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day; note - March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December, known as Victory Day, memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution:
enacted 4 November 1972; effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982; restored 10 November 1986; amended many times

Legal system:
mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently elected by the National Parliament and was sworn in 24 April 2013
Head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
Cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 29 April 2013 (next must be held by 2018)
Election results: President Abdul HAMID was elected by the National Parliament unopposed

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats (45 reserved for women) elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms
Elections: last held on 29 December 2008; note - general elections must be held within 90 days of the expiration of the Parliament or by 24 January 2014 or earlier if Parliament is dissolved before its term expires
Election results: percent of vote by party - AL 49%, BNP 33.2%, JP 7%, JIB 4.6%, other 6.2%; seats by party - AL 230, BNP 30, JP 27, JIB 2, other 11

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
Subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; special courts/tribunals; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court

Political parties and leaders:
Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Communist Party of Bangladesh or CPB [Manjurul A. KHAN]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh or BDB [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY]
Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [multiple leaders]
Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
Ain o Salish Kendro (Law and Order Center)
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Odikhar (Human Rights)
Other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; nongovernmental organizations focused on poverty, alleviation, and socioeconomic international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders

International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Akramul QADER
Chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Dan W. MOZENA
Embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
Mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
Telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744

National symbol(s):
Bengal tiger

National anthem:
Name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)

Lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
In real terms Bangladesh's economy has grown 5.8% per year since 1996 despite political instability, poor infrastructure, corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, 45% of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector with rice as the single-most-important product. Bangladesh's growth was resilient during the 2008-09 global financial crisis and recession. Garment exports, totaling $12.3 billion in FY09 and remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, totaling $11 billion in FY10, accounted for almost 12% of GDP.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$311 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44
$293.3 billion (2011 est.)
$275.4 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$122.7 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
6.1% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46
6.5% (2011 est.)
6.4% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192
$2,000 (2011 est.)
$1,900 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
25.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38
25% of GDP (2011 est.)
26.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 75%
Government consumption: 5.7%
Investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
Investment in inventories: 4.2%
Exports of goods and services: 25%
Imports of goods and services: -35.3%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 17.5%
Industry: 28.5%
Services: 53.9% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, drugs and pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
9.5% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 13

Labor force:
77 million
Country comparison to the world: 7
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances were $10.9 billion in FY09/10 (2012 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 45%
Industry: 30%
Services: 25% (2008)

Unemployment rate:
5% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46
5% (2011 est.)
note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many participants in the labor force work only a few hours a week, at low wages

Population below poverty line:
31.5% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 4%
Highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.2 (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 98
33.6 (1996)

Budget:
Revenues: $14.03 billion
Expenditures: $19.69 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
11.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 204

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 159

Public debt:
31.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
34.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187
10.7% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71
5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62
13.25% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$14.85 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68
$13.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$66.84 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$66.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$79.32 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58
$68.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$23.55 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 66
$15.68 billion (31 December 2010)
$7.068 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$941.9 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109
$243.6 million (2011 est.)

Exports:
$26.25 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
$24.54 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather

Exports - partners:
US 16.7%, Germany 12.5%, UK 8.4%, France 5% (2012)

Imports:
$34.56 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63
$32.61 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement

Imports - partners:
China 19.5%, India 13.4%, Singapore 4.9%, Malaysia 4.7%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$12.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71
$9.192 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$28.07 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
$29.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$6.64 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85
$6.166 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$108 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85
$107 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
taka (BDT) per US dollar -
81.863 (2012 est.)
74.152 (2011 est.)
69.649 (2010 est.)
69.04 (2009)
68.554 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
35.7 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Electricity - consumption:
34.83 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
5.819 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
95.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Crude oil - production:
5,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Crude oil - imports:
26,460 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65

Crude oil - proved reserves:
28 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Refined petroleum products - production:
24,790 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
108,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Refined petroleum products - exports:
2,928 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Refined petroleum products - imports:
77,340 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Natural gas - production:
20.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33

Natural gas - consumption:
20.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Natural gas - proved reserves:
183.7 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
56.74 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
977,700 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Telephones - mobile cellular:
84.369 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Telephone system:
General assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 50 telephones per 100 persons
International: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) operates 1 terrestrial TV station, 3 radio networks, and about 10 local stations; 8 private satellite TV stations and 3 private radio stations also broadcasting; foreign satellite TV stations are gaining audience share in the large cities; several international radio broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:
.bd

Internet hosts:
71,164 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Internet users:
617,300 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Transportation

Airports:
18 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 16
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Heliports:
3 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 2,950 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 2,622 km
Country comparison to the world: 64
Broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 1,676 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 21,269 km
Country comparison to the world: 105
Paved: 1,063 km
Unpaved: 20,206 km (2010)

Waterways:
8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; the network is reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 17

Merchant marine:
Total: 62
Country comparison to the world: 64
By type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 28, chemical tanker 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 3
Foreign-owned: 8 (China 1, Singapore 7)
Registered in other countries: 10 (Comoros 1, Hong Kong 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Chittagong
River port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
Container port(s): Chittagong (1,392,104) (2011)

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a risk for armed robbery against ships; attacks against vessels have decreased over the last few years in response to improved local security

Military

Military branches:
Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
16-19 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi birth and 10th grade education required; initial obligation 15 years (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 36,520,491 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 30,486,086
Females age 16-49: 35,616,093 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 1,606,963
Female: 1,689,442 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.4% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 230,674 (Burma) (2012)
IDPs: undetermined (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2012)

Illicit drugs:
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

Flag of Bangladesh



Flag description:
green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh