Introduction

Europe :: Bulgaria

Background:
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates:
43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 110,879 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 105
Land: 108,489 sq km
Water: 2,390 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
Total: 1,806 km
Border countries: Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km

Coastline:
354 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain:
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use:
Arable land: 29.28%
Permanent crops: 1.44%
Other: 69.28% (2011)

Irrigated land:
1,046 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources:
21.3 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 6.12 cu km/yr (16%/68%/16%)
Per capita: 821.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes; landslides

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Bulgarian(s)
Adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups:
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Roma 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)

Languages:
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Roma 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)

Population:
6,924,716 (July 2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.2% (male 505,025/female 479,899)
15-24 years: 10.1% (male 359,730/female 340,203)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 1,459,753/female 1,475,240)
55-64 years: 14% (male 446,784/female 519,513)
65 years and over: 19.3% (male 538,720/female 799,849) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 50.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 20.8 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 29.5 %
Potential support ratio: 3.4 (2014 est.)

Median age:
Total: 42.6 years
Male: 40.3 years
Female: 44.8 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.83% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 229

Birth rate:
8.92 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 210

Death rate:
14.3 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 6

Net migration rate:
-2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Urbanization:
Urban population: 73.1% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
SOFIA (capital) 1.174 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
26.3 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 15.08 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 106
Male: 18.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 11.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 74.33 years
Country comparison to the world: 112
Male: 70.74 years
Female: 78.13 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.44 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
69.2%
note: percent of women age 20-49 (2007)

Health expenditures:
7.6% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Physicians density:
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density:
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.5% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3,800 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23.7% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.6% (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Education expenditures:
4.1% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.4%
Male: 98.7%
Female: 98% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 28.1%
Country comparison to the world: 32
Male: 29.5%
Female: 26% (2012)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
Conventional short form: Bulgaria
Local long form: Republika Balgariya
Local short form: Balgariya

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Sofia
Geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya (Sofia), Sofiya-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence:
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution:
several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 12 July 1991; amended several times, last in 2007 (2007)

Legal system:
civil law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Rosen PLEVNELIEV (since 22 January 2012); Vice President Margarita POPOVA (since 22 January 2012)
Head of government: Prime Minister Plamen ORESHARSKI (since 29 May 2013), Deputy Prime Ministers Zinaida ZLATANOVA (since 29 May 2013), Tsvetlin YOVCHEV (since June 2013), and Daniela BOBEVA (since June 2013)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 and 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
Election results: Rosen PLEVNELIEV elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Rosen PLEVNELIEV 52.6%, Ivailo KALFIN 47.4%; Plamen ORESHARSKI elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 120 to 97

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 12 May 2013 (next to be held spring 2017)
Election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 30.5%, BSP 26.6%, MRF 11.3%, Ataka 7.3%; seats by party - GERB 97, BSP 84, MRF 36, Ataka 23

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the Judiciary
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of four justices every 3 years
Subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial

Political parties and leaders:
Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]
Bulgaria of the Citizens [Meglena KUNEVA]
Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]
Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB [Sergei STANISHEV] (coalition of parties dominated by BSP)
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Lyutvi MESTAN]
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA] (formerly National Movement Simeon II or NMS2)
Order, Law, and Justice or RZS [Yane YANEV]
Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
Other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Elena POPTODOROVA (since 4 August 2010)
Chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES (since 5 September 2012)
Embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
Mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
Telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320

National symbol(s):
lion

National anthem:
Name: "Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland)

Lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV
note: adopted 1964; the anthem was composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War

Economy

Economy - overview:
Bulgaria, a former Communist country that entered the EU on 1 January 2007, averaged more than 6% annual growth from 2004 to 2008, driven by significant amounts of bank lending, consumption, and foreign direct investment. Successive governments have demonstrated a commitment to economic reforms and responsible fiscal planning, but the global downturn sharply reduced domestic demand, exports, capital inflows, and industrial production. GDP contracted by 5.5% in 2009, and has been slow to recover in the years since. Despite having a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$104.6 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
$104.1 billion (2012 est.)
$103.3 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$53.7 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.5% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186
0.8% (2012 est.)
1.8% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$14,400 (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93
$14,300 (2012 est.)
$14,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
23.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
22.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
22% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 70.4%
Government consumption: 7.9%
Investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
Investment in inventories: 2.5%
Exports of goods and services: 69.7%
Imports of goods and services: -71.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 6.7%
Industry: 30.3%
Services: 63% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock

Industries:
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Labor force:
2.551 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 7.1%
Industry: 35.2%
Services: 57.7% (2009)

Unemployment rate:
11.6% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120
11.1% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
21.8% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 35.2% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.3 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 39
26 (2001)

Budget:
Revenues: $18.81 billion
Expenditures: $20.12 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
35% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Public debt:
18.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138
16.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41
3% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
$NA (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141
0.22% (31 December 2011 est.)
note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
9.72% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$17.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
$15.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$45.84 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$41.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$37.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66
$37.12 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$6.666 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
$8.253 billion (31 December 2011)
$7.276 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
-$182.3 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83
-$669.5 million (2012 est.)

Exports:
$27.9 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$26.7 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners:
Germany 10.4%, Turkey 9.1%, Italy 8.7%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 7.3%, France 4% (2012)

Imports:
$32.88 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
$31.15 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials

Imports - partners:
Russia 20.9%, Germany 11.3%, Italy 6.7%, Romania 6.6%, Greece 6.1%, Turkey 4.6%, Spain 4.5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$20.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59
$20.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$37.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$36.52 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$54.21 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53
$52.21 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.939 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$1.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
leva (BGN) per US dollar -
1.478 (2013 est.)
1.5221 (2012 est.)
1.4774 (2010 est.)
1.404 (2009)
1.3171 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
43.39 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity - consumption:
30.46 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Electricity - exports:
12.11 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 17

Electricity - imports:
1.45 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
10.01 million kW (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
45.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
19% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 11

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
21.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
4.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Crude oil - production:
3,384 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Crude oil - imports:
124,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Crude oil - proved reserves:
15 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Refined petroleum products - production:
128,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
112,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Refined petroleum products - exports:
73,740 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Refined petroleum products - imports:
50,130 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Natural gas - production:
410 million cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - consumption:
2.54 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Natural gas - imports:
2.64 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
52.44 million Mt (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
2.253 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.78 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Telephone system:
General assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
Domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, has reached 150 telephones per 100 persons
International: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2011)

Broadcast media:
4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)

Internet country code:
.bg

Internet hosts:
976,277 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Internet users:
3.395 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Transportation

Airports:
68 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 57
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
Under 914 m: 26 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m:
9 (2013)

Heliports:
1 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 2,887 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 4,152 km
Country comparison to the world: 41
Standard gauge: 4,072 km 1.435-m gauge (2,863 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 80 km 0.760-m gauge (2011)

Roadways:
Total: 19,512 km
Country comparison to the world: 111
Paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 277 km
note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)

Waterways:
470 km (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Merchant marine:
Total: 22
Country comparison to the world: 93
By type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
Foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)
Registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)

Military

Military branches:
Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Bulgarski Voennovazdyshni Sily, BVVS) (2011)

Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,637,470
Females age 16-49: 1,621,352 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,320,955
Females age 16-49: 1,337,616 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 33,444
Female: 32,075 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.46% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 67
1.55% of GDP (2011)
1.46% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Illicit drugs:
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)

Flag of Bulgaria



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue
note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Bulgaria ID - 563037 PB - The World Factbook 2014 UR - https://relief.unboundmedicine.com/relief/view/The-World-Factbook-2014/563037/all/Bulgaria ER -