Introduction

East & Southeast Asia :: Brunei

Background:
The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Area:
Total: 5,765 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 173
Land: 5,265 sq km
Water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
Total: 381 km
Border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:
161 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
Arable land: 0.52%
Permanent crops: 0.87%
Other: 98.61% (2011)

Irrigated land:
10 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
8.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.09 cu km/yr (97%/0%/3%)
Per capita: 301.6 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Bruneian(s)
Adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:
Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)

Languages:
Malay (official), English, Chinese

Religions:
Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%

Population:
415,717 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.6% (male 52,761/female 49,538)
15-24 years: 17.5% (male 35,879/female 36,767)
25-54 years: 46.8% (male 94,827/female 99,779)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 15,594/female 14,642)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 7,767/female 8,163) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 42 %
Youth dependency ratio: 36 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 %
Potential support ratio: 16.4 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 29 years
Male: 28.7 years
Female: 29.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.67% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Birth rate:
17.63 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Death rate:
3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215

Net migration rate:
2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Urbanization:
Urban population: 76% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000
note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 140
Male: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 76.57 years
Country comparison to the world: 76
Male: 74.28 years
Female: 78.97 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Health expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Physicians density:
1.42 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
2.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 159

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
7.5% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Education expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.4%
Male: 97%
Female: 93.9% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
Conventional short form: Brunei
Local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Local short form: Brunei

Government type:
constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)

Capital:
Name: Bandar Seri Begawan
Geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
Time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:
1 January 1984 (from the UK)

National holiday:
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution:
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system:
mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age for village elections; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state (Yang Di-Pertuan Agong) and head of government
Head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
Cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
Elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Legislative branch:
the Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March
Elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch)
note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
Subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts (2006)

Political parties and leaders:
National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Dato Yusoff Abd HAMID
Chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS III
Embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
Mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
Telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604

National anthem:
Name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)

Lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951

Economy

Economy - overview:
Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$22.04 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127
$21.76 billion (2011 est.)
$21.29 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$16.63 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151
2.2% (2011 est.)
2.6% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$55,300 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 11
$55,400 (2011 est.)
$55,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 20.7%
Government consumption: 18%
Investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 78.9%
Imports of goods and services: -31.7%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 0.6%
Industry: 71.7%
Services: 27.7% (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs

Industries:
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation

Industrial production growth rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Labor force:
205,800 (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 4.2%
Industry: 62.8%
Services: 33% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
2.6% (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 21
2.7% (2010)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $7.363 billion
Expenditures: $5.122 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
44.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
13.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 5

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.5% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 7
2.1% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150
5.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$3.509 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111
$3.255 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$11.62 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
$10.64 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.266 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134
$1.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
$3.977 billion (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Exports:
$12.75 billion (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$9.88 billion (2010)

Exports - commodities:
crude oil, natural gas, garments

Exports - partners:
Japan 46.5%, South Korea 15.5%, Australia 9.3%, India 7%, NZ 6.7% (2012)

Imports:
$3.02 billion (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144
$2.73 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities:
iron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:
Singapore 26.3%, China 21.3%, UK 21.3%, Malaysia 11.8% (2012)

Debt - external:
$0 (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Exchange rates:
Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.2496 (2012 est.)
1.2579 (2011 est.)
1.3635 (2010 est.)
1.45 (2009)

Energy

Electricity - production:
3.723 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Electricity - consumption:
3.391 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
894,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Crude oil - production:
166,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Crude oil - exports:
155,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Crude oil - proved reserves:
1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Refined petroleum products - production:
14,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
14,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,016 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Natural gas - production:
11.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Natural gas - consumption:
2.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Natural gas - exports:
8.83 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Natural gas - proved reserves:
390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
8.271 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
79,800 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Telephones - mobile cellular:
443,200 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Telephone system:
General assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
Domestic: every service available
International: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)

Internet country code:
.bn

Internet hosts:
49,457 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Internet users:
314,900 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 213

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
Over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports:
3 (2013)

Pipelines:
condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 3,029 km
Country comparison to the world: 166
Paved: 2,425 km
Unpaved: 604 km (2010)

Waterways:
209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Merchant marine:
Total: 9
Country comparison to the world: 115
By type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8
Foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Muara
Oil/gas terminal(s): Lumut, Seria

Military

Military branches:
Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 112,688
Females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 95,141
Females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 3,572
Female: 3,465 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
2.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 21,009 (2012); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land

Illicit drugs:
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

Flag of Brunei



Flag description:
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"