Introduction

Africa :: Chad

Background:
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 1.284 million sq km
Country comparison to the world: 21
Land: 1,259,200 sq km
Water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries:
Total: 5,968 km
Border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain:
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Djourab 160 m
Highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

Land use:
Arable land: 3.82%
Permanent crops: 0.02%
Other: 96.16% (2011)

Irrigated land:
302.7 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
43 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.88 cu km/yr (12%/12%/76%)
Per capita: 84.81 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note:
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Chadian(s)
Adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups:
Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions:
Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)

Population:
11,193,452 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45.2% (male 2,565,613/female 2,494,020)
15-24 years: 20.4% (male 1,107,121/female 1,178,946)
25-54 years: 27.6% (male 1,393,498/female 1,693,233)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 188,558/female 242,559)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 137,590/female 192,314) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 103.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 98.4 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
Potential support ratio: 20.4 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 17 years
Male: 15.9 years
Female: 18.1 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.95% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Birth rate:
37.99 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Death rate:
14.85 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 4

Net migration rate:
-3.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Urbanization:
Urban population: 21.8% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.079 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.2 (2004 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
1,100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 2

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 91.94 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 6
Male: 97.64 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 86.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 49.07 years
Country comparison to the world: 223
Male: 47.95 years
Female: 50.22 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.8 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
4.8% (2010)

Health expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Physicians density:
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density:
0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 51% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 49% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 13% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 87% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.4% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
210,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 26

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
2.7% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
33.9% (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 9

Education expenditures:
2.9% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
Total population: 35.4%
Male: 45.6%
Female: 25.4% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 8 years
Male: 10 years
Female: 6 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 1,475,960
Percentage: 48 % (2010 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Chad
Conventional short form: Chad
Local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
Local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: N'Djamena
Geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira

Independence:
11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution:
passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
Head of government: Prime Minister Djimrangar DADNADJI (since 21 January 2013)
Cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA
Subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
rebel groups

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Maitine DJOUMBE
Chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
Embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
Mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
Telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54

National symbol(s):
goat (north); lion (south)

National anthem:
Name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
Lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960

Economy

Economy - overview:
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Economic conditions have been positive in recent years, with real GDP growth reaching 13% in 2010 because of high international prices for oil and a strong local harvest. GDP growth for 2012 was 5%. However, Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. The government of Chad is determined to improve agricultural production through modernization and mechanization over the next three years, and hosted a national Rural Development Forum in 2012 to promote investment in agriculture. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. Remittances are also an important source of income. The Libyan conflict disrupted inflows of remittances to Chad's impoverished western region that relies on income from Chadians living in Libya. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1.5 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and have completed a 311-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$21 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129
$19.99 billion (2011 est.)
$19.89 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.81 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
0.5% (2011 est.)
13% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,000 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194
$1,900 (2011 est.)
$1,900 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
28% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31
30.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 66.5%
Government consumption: 11.9%
Investment in fixed capital: 31.9%
Investment in inventories: 0.7%
Exports of goods and services: 41%
Imports of goods and services: -52.1%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 47.1%
Industry: 9.2%
Services: 43.7% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industries:
oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate:
10.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8

Labor force:
4.293 million (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 88

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 80% (2006 est.)
Industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:
NA%

Population below poverty line:
80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)

Budget:
Revenues: $2.748 billion
Expenditures: $2.979 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
25.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Public debt:
33.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110
43.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198
-4.9% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 77
4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46
15% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.499 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133
$1.235 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.642 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156
$1.335 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$785.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164
$553.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
-$1.965 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
-$2.386 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$4.144 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120
$4.306 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic

Exports - partners:
US 82.5%, China 6.7% (2012)

Imports:
$2.761 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149
$2.696 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:
China 19.8%, Cameroon 19.7%, France 15.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, US 4.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.174 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131
$968.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$1.793 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146
$1.821 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$4.5 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
510.53 (2012 est.)
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
95 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Electricity - consumption:
88.35 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
31,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Crude oil - production:
123,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Crude oil - exports:
115,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Crude oil - proved reserves:
1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1,817 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,754 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
290,900 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
31,200 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.666 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Telephone system:
General assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
Domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
International: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)

Internet country code:
.td

Internet hosts:
6 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 229

Internet users:
168,100 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Transportation

Airports:
59 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 9
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 50
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
Under 914 m:
11 (2013)

Pipelines:
oil 582 km (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 40,000 km
Country comparison to the world: 89
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)

Waterways:
(Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Military

Military branches:
Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,090,244
Females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,183,242
Females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 128,723
Female: 128,244 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 306,960 (Sudan) (2012); 83,751 (Central African Republic) (2013)
IDPs: 90,000 (majority are in the east) (2012)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking problem is mainly internal and frequently involves family members entrusting children to relatives or intermediaries in return for promises of education, apprenticeships, goods, or money; child trafficking victims are subjected to involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or commercial sexual exploitation; some Chadian girls who travel to larger towns in search of work are forced into prostitution; in 2012, Chadian children were identified in some government military training centers and among rebel groups
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has made a limited commitment to increased anti-trafficking law enforcement but continues to lack formal victim identification procedures; draft revisions to Chad's penal code that would prohibit child trafficking and provide protection for victims were not enacted for the third consecutive year; the government continues its nationwide campaign on human rights issues, including human trafficking, and high-ranking officials, such as the president and prime minister, are speaking out publicly against human trafficking (2013)

Flag of Chad



Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France