World Factbook

El Salvador

Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: El Salvador

Background:
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates:
13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 21,041 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 153
Land: 20,721 sq km
Water: 320 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
Total: 545 km
Border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline:
307 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources:
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use:
Arable land: 31.61%
Permanent crops: 10.93%
Other: 57.46% (2011)

Irrigated land:
449.9 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
25.23 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 1.84 cu km/yr (22%/14%/64%)
Per capita: 301.9 cu m/yr (2007)

Natural hazards:
known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (elev. 1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (elev. 2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Salvadoran(s)
Adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups:
mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 1% (2007 census)

Languages:
Spanish (official), Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 21.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.9%, Mormon 0.7%, other religions 2.3%, none 16.8% (2003 est.)

Demographic profile:
El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.
Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador's population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.

Population:
6,108,590 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.9% (male 905,236/female 859,468)
15-24 years: 20.9% (male 638,938/female 635,460)
25-54 years: 37% (male 1,037,173/female 1,224,227)
55-64 years: 6.5% (male 179,374/female 217,472)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 182,773/female 228,469) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 59 %
Youth dependency ratio: 47.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 11.3 %
Potential support ratio: 8.8 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 25.1 years
Male: 23.7 years
Female: 26.6 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.29% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Birth rate:
17.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Death rate:
5.65 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Net migration rate:
-8.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Urbanization:
Urban population: 64% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
SAN SALVADOR (capital) 1.605 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.8 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
81 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 19.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 97
Male: 21.12 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 16.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 73.93 years
Country comparison to the world: 117
Male: 70.66 years
Female: 77.37 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.99 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72.5%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2008)

Health expenditures:
6.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Physicians density:
1.6 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 76% of population
total: 88% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 24% of population
total: 12% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 83% of population
total: 87% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 11% of population
rural: 17% of population
total: 13% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.8% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
34,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,400 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.8% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.6% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 78

Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 84.5%
Male: 87.1%
Female: 82.3% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 179,303
Percentage: 4 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 11.4%
Country comparison to the world: 100
Male: 13%
Female: 8.3% (2007)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
Conventional short form: El Salvador
Local long form: Republica de El Salvador
Local short form: El Salvador

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: San Salvador
Geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W
Time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013

Administrative divisions:
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution:
20 December 1983

Legal system:
civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Carlos Mauricio FUNES Cartagena (since 1 June 2009); Vice President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Carlos Mauricio FUNES Cartagena (since 1 June 2009); Vice President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2009)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held on 15 March 2009 (next to be held in February 2014)
Election results: Mauricio FUNES Cartagena elected president; percent of vote - Mauricio FUNES Cartagena 51.3%, Rodrigo AVILA 48.7%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)
Elections: last held on 11 March 2012 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ARENA 33, FMLN 31, GANA 11, CN 7, PES 1, PCD 1; note - changes in party affiliation now reflect the following seat distribution: as of 8 May 2013 - FMLN 31, ARENA 28, GANA 11, CN 7, Unidos por El Salvador 5, CD 1, PDC 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of 15 judges assigned to constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict divisions)
Judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judicature, an independent body elected by the Legislative Assembly; judges elected for single, 9-year terms with renewal of one-third of judges every 3 years.
Subordinate courts: Chambers of Second Instance; Courts of First Instance; Courts of Peace

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Tomas CHEVEZ] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU)
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]
Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Andres ROVIRA]
National Coalition (Concertation Nacional) or CN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA] (formerly the National Conciliation Party or PCN)
Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Alfredo CRISTIANI]
Party of Hope or PES [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto] (formerly the Christian Democratic Party or PCD)
Unidos por El Salvador [Manuel Rigoberto SOTO Lazo]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Labor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL

Business organizations:
National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI

International organization participation:
BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben Ignacio ZAMORA Rivas
Chancery: Suite 100, 1400 16th Street, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 595-7500
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3763
Consulate(s) general: Brentwood (NY), Chicago, Coral Gables (FL), Dallas, Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson, Woodbridge (VA), Woodstock (GA)
Consulate(s): Elizabeth (NJ)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Mari Carmen APONTE
Embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
Mailing address: Unit 3450, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450
Telephone: [503] 2501-2999
FAX: [503] 2501-2150

National symbol(s):
turquoise-browed motmot (bird)

National anthem:
Name: "Himno Nacional de El Salvador" (National Anthem of El Salvador)

Lyrics/music: Juan Jose CANAS/Juan ABERLE
note: officially adopted 1953, in use since 1879; the anthem of El Salvador is one of the world's longest

Economy

Economy - overview:
The smallest country in Central America geographically, El Salvador has the third largest economy in the region. With the global recession in 2009, real GDP contracted by 3.1%. The economy slowed even further during 2010-12. Remittances accounted for 17% of GDP in 2011 and were received by about a third of all households. In 2006, El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition. El Salvador has promoted an open trade and investment environment and has completed a wave of privatizations extending to telecom, electricity distribution, banking, and pension funds. The Salvadoran Government maintained fiscal discipline during post-war reconstruction and reconstruction following earthquakes in 2001 and hurricanes in 1998 and 2005, but El Salvador's external debt has been mounting over the last several years. Taxes levied by the government include a value added tax (VAT) of 13%, income tax of 30%, excise taxes on alcohol and cigarettes, and import duties. The VAT accounted for about 51.7% of total tax revenues in 2011. El Salvador's external debt amounts to about one-fourth of GDP. In 2012, El Salvador successfully completed a $461 million compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) - a United States Government agency aimed at stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty - in the country's northern region, the primary conflict zone during the civil war, through investments in education, public services, enterprise development, and transportation infrastructure. In January 2013, the MCC approved El Salvador as eligible for a possible second MCC compact.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$47.09 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
$46.35 billion (2011 est.)
$45.45 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$23.82 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144
2% (2011 est.)
1.4% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$7,600 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138
$7,500 (2011 est.)
$7,400 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
8.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129
8.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 93.2%
Government consumption: 11%
Investment in fixed capital: 14.2%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 28.2%
Imports of goods and services: -46.6%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 10.2%
Industry: 29.1%
Services: 60.7% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products

Industries:
food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Labor force:
2.593 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 21%
Industry: 20%
Services: 58% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate:
6.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73
7% (2011 est.)
note: data are official rates; but the economy has much underemployment

Population below poverty line:
36.5% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 1%
Highest 10%: 37% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46.9 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 31
52.5 (2001)

Budget:
Revenues: $4.621 billion
Expenditures: $5.435 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
19.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Public debt:
59.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47
53.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: El Salvador's total public debt includes non-financial public sector debt, financial public sector debt, and central bank debt

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35
5.1% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143
5.99% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.796 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116
$2.781 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$9.527 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109
$9.213 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$10.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97
$10.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$5.474 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 86
$4.227 billion (31 December 2010)
$4.432 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$1.035 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
-$1.223 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$5.447 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
$5.402 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, gold, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures

Exports - partners:
US 45.8%, Guatemala 14.9%, Honduras 9.6%, Nicaragua 5.8% (2012)

Imports:
$9.912 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98
$9.801 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners:
US 34.4%, Guatemala 10.8%, Mexico 6.8%, Colombia 5.7%, China 5.5%, Germany 4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.176 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106
$2.504 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$13.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91
$12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$8.613 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$8.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$12.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92
$12.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Note: the US dollar is used as a medium of exchange and circulates freely in the economy, 1 (2012 est.)
1 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
5.728 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - consumption:
5.756 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - exports:
101.6 million kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Electricity - imports:
215.8 million kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.501 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
53% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
31.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
15.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Crude oil - imports:
13,160 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129

Refined petroleum products - production:
16,750 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
44,040 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Refined petroleum products - exports:
2,158 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Refined petroleum products - imports:
26,860 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6.484 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.03 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Telephones - mobile cellular:
8.316 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Telephone system:
General assessment: multiple mobile-cellular providers are expanding services rapidly and in 2011 teledensity exceeded 135 per 100 persons; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition
Domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
International: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2011)

Broadcast media:
multiple privately owned national terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station (2007)

Internet country code:
.sv

Internet hosts:
24,070 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Internet users:
746,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Transportation

Airports:
68 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 5
Over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 63
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
Under 914 m:
51 (2013)

Heliports:
2 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 283 km
Country comparison to the world: 121
Narrow gauge: 283 km 0.600-m gauge
note: railways have been inoperable since 2005 because of disuse and high costs that led to a lack of maintenance (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 6,918 km
Country comparison to the world: 148
Paved: 3,247 km (includes 341 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 3,671 km (2010)

Waterways:
(Rio Lempa is partially navigable for small craft) (2011)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Puerto Cutuco
Oil/gas terminal(s): Acajutla offshore terminal

Military

Military branches:
Salvadoran Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, FAES): Salvadoran Army (Ejercito de El Salvador, ES), Salvadoran Navy (Fuerza Naval de El Slavador, FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation is 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,449,214
Females age 16-49: 1,611,248 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,079,038
Females age 16-49: 1,373,368 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 71,530
Female: 68,971 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.6% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine

Flag of El Salvador



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity
note: similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band