Introduction

Europe :: Finland

Background:
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Geography

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 338,145 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 65
Land: 303,815 sq km
Water: 34,330 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,654 km
Border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline:
1,250 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

Natural resources:
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use:
Arable land: 6.65%
Permanent crops: 0.01%
Other: 93.34% (2011)

Irrigated land:
685.8 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
110 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 1.63 cu km/yr (25%/72%/3%)
Per capita: 308.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Finn(s)
Adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups:
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)

Languages:
Finnish (official) 91.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 3.3% (2007)

Religions:
Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006)

Population:
5,266,114 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.8% (male 424,571/female 410,042)
15-24 years: 12.3% (male 329,625/female 316,585)
25-54 years: 38.3% (male 1,026,525/female 988,772)
55-64 years: 14.4% (male 374,685/female 385,933)
65 years and over: 19.2% (male 421,854/female 587,522) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 55 %
Youth dependency ratio: 25.5 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 29.5 %
Potential support ratio: 3.4 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 43 years
Male: 41.2 years
Female: 44.8 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.06% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Birth rate:
10.36 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Death rate:
10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Net migration rate:
0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Urbanization:
Urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
HELSINKI (capital) 1.107 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.9 (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 213
Male: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 79.55 years
Country comparison to the world: 41
Male: 76.09 years
Female: 83.15 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Health expenditures:
9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Physicians density:
2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
6.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,600 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Education expenditures:
6.8% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 17 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 18 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 18.9%
Country comparison to the world: 64
Male: 19.3%
Female: 18.4% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Finland
Conventional short form: Finland
Local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
Local short form: Suomi/Finland

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Helsinki
Geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution:
1 March 2000

Legal system:
civil law system based on the Swedish model; note - the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 22 June 2011)
Cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); the parliament elects a prime minister who is then appointed to office by the president
Election results: percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 36.96%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.76%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.53%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMÄKI (Vas) 5.48%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.47%; a runoff election between NIINISTO and HAAVISTO was held 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.59%, HAAVISTO 37.41%; Jyrki KATAINEN elected prime minister; election results 118-72
note: government coalition - Kok, SDP, Vihr, SFP, Vas, and KD (2013)

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 17 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Kok 20.4%, SDP 19.1%, TF 19.1%, Kesk 15.8%, Vas 8.1%, Vihr 7.3%, SFP 4.3%, KD 4%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Kok 44, SDP 42, TF 39, Kesk 35, Vas 14, Vihr 10, SFP 9, KD 6, other 1 (the constituency of Aland)

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers)
note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
Subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Jutta URPILAINEN]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]
The Finns Party or TF [Timo SOINI]

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Ritva KOUKKU-RONDE
Chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Bruce J. ORECK
Embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
Mailing address: APO AE 09723
Telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800

National symbol(s):
lion

National anthem:
Name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

Lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

Economy

Economy - overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Trade is important with exports accounting for over one third of GDP in recent years. Finland is strongly competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in high-tech exports such as mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010-11. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio, turning previously strong budget surpluses into deficits, but Finland has taken action to ensure it will meet EU deficit targets by 2013 and retains its triple-A credit rating. Finland's main challenge in 2013 will be to stimulate growth in the face of weak demand in EU export markets and government austerity measures meant to reduce its budget deficit. Longer-term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$200.7 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56
$201.1 billion (2011 est.)
$195.7 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$250.1 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 185
2.8% (2011 est.)
3.3% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$37,000 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37
$37,200 (2011 est.)
$36,400 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
18.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83
20.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
21% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 56.3%
Government consumption: 24.8%
Investment in fixed capital: 19.4%
Investment in inventories: 1.2%
Exports of goods and services: 39.8%
Imports of goods and services: -40.5%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2.8%
Industry: 27.1%
Services: 70.1% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Industries:
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
-1.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150

Labor force:
2.69 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture and forestry: 4.4%
Industry: 15.5%
Construction: 7.1%
Commerce: 21.3%
Finance, insurance, and business services: 13.3%
Transport and communications: 9.9%
Public services: 28.5% (2011)

Unemployment rate:
7.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87
7.8% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.6%
Highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.8 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 127
25.6 (1991)

Budget:
Revenues: $134.5 billion
Expenditures: $139.8 billion
note: Central Government Budget (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
53.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 11

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Public debt:
53% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
49.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
3.3% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 117
1.75% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2.06% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180
2.68% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$126.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28
$115.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$183.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44
$176.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$265 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38
$248.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$143.1 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 40
$118.2 billion (31 December 2010)
$91.02 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$3.6 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155
-$1.86 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$73.4 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
$79.15 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Exports - partners:
Sweden 11.1%, Russia 9.9%, Germany 9.4%, Netherlands 6.4%, US 6.1%, UK 5.1%, China 4.6% (2012)

Imports:
$73.15 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41
$80.89 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners:
Russia 17.8%, Sweden 14.8%, Germany 13.9%, Netherlands 8%, China 4.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$11.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73
$10.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$599.3 billion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 23
$478.5 billion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$134.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34
$128.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$186.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
$173 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
76.16 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Electricity - consumption:
77.66 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Electricity - exports:
5.218 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - imports:
15.72 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
16.32 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
52.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
16.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
19.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Crude oil - imports:
215,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Refined petroleum products - production:
301,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
204,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Refined petroleum products - exports:
133,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Refined petroleum products - imports:
103,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Natural gas - consumption:
4.101 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Natural gas - imports:
4.101 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
54.4 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.08 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 73

Telephones - mobile cellular:
8.94 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern system with excellent service
Domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
International: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2011)

Broadcast media:
a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; the 2 publicly owned TV stations recently expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals have been broadcast digitally since September 2007; analog broadcasts via cable networks were terminated in February 2008; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters (2008)

Internet country code:
.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet hosts:
4.763 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Internet users:
4.393 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Transportation

Airports:
148 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 74
Over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
Under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Under 914 m:
71 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 1,689 km (2010)

Railways:
Total: 5,944 km
Country comparison to the world: 31
Broad gauge: 5,944 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 78,000 km
Country comparison to the world: 61
Paved: 50,000 km (includes 700 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 28,000 km
note: there 78,000 km of highways, 350,000 km of private and forest roads, and 26,000 km of urban roads giving Finland a total road network of 450,000 km (2012)

Waterways:
8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport is used frequently in the summer and is widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finand also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 18

Merchant marine:
Total: 97
Country comparison to the world: 51
By type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3
Foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)
Registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma

Military

Military branches:
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,155,368
Females age 16-49: 1,106,193 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 955,151
Females age 16-49: 912,983 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 32,599
Female: 31,416 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 2,017 (2012)

Flag of Finland



Flag description:
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter