Introduction

Africa :: Ghana

Background:
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009, but he died in July 2012 and was succeeded by his vice president John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won a December 2012 special presidential election.

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 238,533 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 82
Land: 227,533 sq km
Water: 11,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,094 km
Border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline:
539 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain:
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m

Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

Land use:
Arable land: 20.12%
Permanent crops: 11.74%
Other: 68.14% (2011)

Irrigated land:
309 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
53.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.98 cu km/yr (24%/10%/66%)
Per capita: 48.82 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts

Environment - current issues:
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi)

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Ghanaian(s)
Adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups:
Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande-Busanga 1.1%, other 1.6% (2010 census)

Languages:
Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)

Religions:
Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 census)

Population:
25,199,609 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.7% (male 4,902,094/female 4,858,630)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 2,360,293/female 2,382,573)
25-54 years: 33.7% (male 4,120,921/female 4,363,889)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 577,431/female 610,716)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 476,297/female 546,765) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 72.2 %
Youth dependency ratio: 66.2 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 6 %
Potential support ratio: 16.7 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 20.7 years
Male: 20.3 years
Female: 21.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.19% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Birth rate:
31.7 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Death rate:
7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Net migration rate:
-2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Urbanization:
Urban population: 51.9% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
ACCRA (capital) 2.269 million; Kumasi 1.773 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.8
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 39.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 59
Male: 43.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 35.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 65.32 years
Country comparison to the world: 172
Male: 62.99 years
Female: 67.71 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.12 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
23.5% (2008)

Health expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Physicians density:
0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 86% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 14% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 19% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 14% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 81% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 86% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.8% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
260,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 23

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
18,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
7.5% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
14.3% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Education expenditures:
8.2% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 12

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 71.5%
Male: 78.3%
Female: 65.3% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2012)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 1,806,750
Percentage: 34 % (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 16.6%
Country comparison to the world: 80
Male: 16.4%
Female: 16.7% (2000)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
Conventional short form: Ghana
Former: Gold Coast

Government type:
constitutional democracy

Capital:
Name: Accra
Geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence:
6 March 1957 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution:
approved 28 April 1992

Legal system:
mixed system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 24 July 2012); Vice President Kwesi Bekoe AMISSAH-ARTHUR (since 6 August 2012); note - President MAHAMA assumed office due to the death of former president John Atta MILLS and subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election; the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 24 July 2012); Vice President Kwesi Bekoe AMISSAH-ARTHUR (since 6 August 2012); note - President MAHAMA assumed office due to the death of former president John Atta MILLS and subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
Elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2016)
Election results: John Dramani MAHAMA elected president; percent of vote - John Dramani MAHAMA 50.7%, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO 47.7%, other 1.6%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote in single-seat constituencies to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 7 and 8 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NPP 47.5%, NDC 46.4%, PNC 0.6%, independent 2.5%, other 3.0%; seats by party - NDC 151, NPP 120, PNC 1, independent 3

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals

Political parties and leaders:
Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH]
Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Obed Yao ASAMOAH]
Democratic People’s Party or DPP [T.N. WARD BREW]
Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Henry GIDI]
Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [vacant]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Nii Armah JOSIAH-AYEH]
New Patriotic Party or NPP [Jake OBETSEBI-LAMPEY]
People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]
National Reform Party [Peter KPORDUGBE]
United Renaissance Party or URP [Kofi WAYO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Christian Aid (water rights)
Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform)
National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)
Oxfam (water rights)
Public Citizen (water rights)
Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform)
Third World Network (education reform)

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel Ohene AGYEKUM
Chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Gene CRETZ
Embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
Mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
Telephone: [233] 30-2741-000
FAX: [233] 30-2741-389

National symbol(s):
black star; golden eagle

National anthem:
Name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"

Lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO
note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, once when a republic was declared in 1960 and again after a 1966 coup

Economy

Economy - overview:
Ghana's economy has been strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels. Ghana is well endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected to boost economic growth. President MAHAMA faces challenges in managing new oil revenue while maintaining fiscal discipline and resisting debt accumulation. Estimated oil reserves have jumped to almost 700 million barrels. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana''s agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with higher prices for oil, gold and, cocoa helped sustain high GDP growth in 2008-12, despite the general slowdown in the global economy during that same time period.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$83.74 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79
$78.28 billion (2011 est.)
$68.43 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$38.94 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 29
14.4% (2011 est.)
8% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,400 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174
$3,200 (2011 est.)
$2,900 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
18.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86
17.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
17.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 60.9%
Government consumption: 13.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 29%
Investment in inventories: 6.9%
Exports of goods and services: 45.9%
Imports of goods and services: -56.2%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 22.7%
Industry: 27.3%
Services: 50% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Industries:
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building

Industrial production growth rate:
7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Labor force:
11.79 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 56%
Industry: 15%
Services: 29% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
11% (2000 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Population below poverty line:
28.5% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2005-06)
Country comparison to the world: 65
40.7 (1999)

Budget:
Revenues: $9.282 billion
Expenditures: $14.13 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
23.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-12.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 210

Public debt:
49.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68
41.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192
8.7% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
18% (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 8
17% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
22.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
18.2% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$5.771 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95
$5.925 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$11.56 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
$11.79 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$12.45 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94
$10.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.097 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 91
$3.531 billion (31 December 2010)
$2.508 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$4.559 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162
-$3.675 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$13.73 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81
$12.79 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products

Exports - partners:
France 13.3%, Italy 12.1%, Netherlands 8.7%, China 7.2%, Germany 4.2% (2012)

Imports:
$17.56 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81
$15.84 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 25.8%, Nigeria 10.9%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.3%, Singapore 4.5%, UK 4.1%, India 4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.705 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89
$5.805 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$12.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95
$11.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
cedis (GHC) per US dollar -
1.796 (2012 est.)
1.512 (2011 est.)
1.431 (2010 est.)
1.409 (2009)
1.1 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
8.764 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Electricity - consumption:
6.122 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Electricity - exports:
752 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Electricity - imports:
198 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.985 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
40.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
59.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Crude oil - production:
72,580 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Crude oil - exports:
14,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Crude oil - imports:
43,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Crude oil - proved reserves:
660 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Refined petroleum products - production:
27,260 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
61,590 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Refined petroleum products - exports:
7,275 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Refined petroleum products - imports:
24,390 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Natural gas - consumption:
120 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Natural gas - imports:
120 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Natural gas - proved reserves:
22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
10.58 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
284,700 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Telephones - mobile cellular:
21.166 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Telephone system:
General assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
Domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 80 per 100 persons and rising
International: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2009)

Broadcast media:
state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)

Internet country code:
.gh

Internet hosts:
59,086 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Internet users:
1.297 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Transportation

Airports:
10 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 7
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 947 km
Country comparison to the world: 91
Narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 109,515 km
Country comparison to the world: 41
Paved: 13,787 km
Unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)

Waterways:
1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Merchant marine:
Total: 4
Country comparison to the world: 131
By type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
Foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema

Military

Military branches:
Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 6,268,191
Females age 16-49: 6,194,339 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 4,136,406
Females age 16-49: 4,220,761 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 267,896
Female: 260,992 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 5,156 (Liberia) (2012); 8,532 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2013)

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use

Flag of Ghana



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band