Introduction

Europe :: Gibraltar(overseas territory of the UK)

Background:
Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.

Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates:
36 08 N, 5 21 W

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 6.5 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 243
Land: 6.5 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries:
Total: 1.2 km
Border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline:
12 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate:
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain:
a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources:
none

Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 100% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant

Geography - note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Gibraltarian(s)
Adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups:
Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans

Languages:
English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Religions:
Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)

Population:
29,111 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 218

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.1% (male 3,013/female 2,845)
15-24 years: 16.4% (male 2,481/female 2,284)
25-54 years: 37.7% (male 5,493/female 5,493)
55-64 years: 11.2% (male 1,580/female 1,667)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 2,081/female 2,174) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 33.8 years
Male: 32.9 years
Female: 34.8 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.26% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Birth rate:
14.19 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Death rate:
8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Net migration rate:
-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 179

Urbanization:
Urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 166
Male: 7.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 78.98 years
Country comparison to the world: 47
Male: 76.13 years
Female: 82.03 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.93 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: NA
Total population: above 80%
Male: NA
Female: NA

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Gibraltar

Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK

Government type:
NA

Capital:
Name: Gibraltar
Geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:
National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain

Constitution:
5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007

Legal system:
the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)
Head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 8 December 2011 (next to be held not later than 8 December 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 48%, GSLP 46.8%, Progressive Democratic Party 4.4%, other 0.8%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 7

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least three judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges)
note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
Judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years
Subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment

Political parties and leaders:
Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]
Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Chamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association

International organization participation:
ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

National symbol(s):
Barbary macaque

National anthem:
Name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
Lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.275 billion (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201
$1.203 billion (2007 est.)
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
6% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 47
8.8% (2007)
0% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$43,000 (2006 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$38,400 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 0%
Industry: 0%
Services: 100% (2008 est.)

Agriculture - products:
none

Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
12,690 (2001) (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 215

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: negligible
Industry: 40%
Services: 60% (2001)

Unemployment rate:
3% (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $475.8 million
Expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
43% of GDP (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
2.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 23

Public debt:
7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147
13.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 78
2.6% (2006)

Exports:
$271 million (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Exports - commodities:
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods

Imports:
$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Imports - commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.6307 (2012)
0.6236 (2011)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
164 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Electricity - consumption:
152.5 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 191

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
36,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
24,920 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Refined petroleum products - imports:
27,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
3.908 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
24,000 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Telephones - mobile cellular:
32,500 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 205

Telephone system:
General assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
Domestic: automatic exchange facilities
International: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media:
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)

Internet country code:
.gi

Internet hosts:
3,509 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Internet users:
20,200 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 217

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 29 km
Country comparison to the world: 219
Paved: 29 km (2007)

Merchant marine:
Total: 267
Country comparison to the world: 32
By type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
Foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
Registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Gibraltar

Military

Military branches:
Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 6,017
Females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 228
Female: 220 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy

Flag of Gibraltar



Flag description:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean