Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: Grenada

Background:
Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since that time. Hurricane Ivan struck Grenada in September of 2004 causing severe damage.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates:
12 07 N, 61 40 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 344 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 207
Land: 344 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
121 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain:
volcanic in origin with central mountains

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

Natural resources:
timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use:
Arable land: 8.82%
Permanent crops: 20.59%
Other: 70.59% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2.19 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
NA

Natural hazards:
lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Environment - current issues:
NA

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Grenadian(s)
Adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic groups:
black 82%, mixed black and European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, and trace of Arawak/Carib Amerindian

Languages:
English (official), French patois

Religions:
Roman Catholic 53%, Anglican 13.8%, other Protestant 33.2%

Population:
109,590 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24.7% (male 13,962/female 13,101)
15-24 years: 17.1% (male 9,310/female 9,474)
25-54 years: 40.2% (male 22,624/female 21,421)
55-64 years: 8.7% (male 4,935/female 4,642)
65 years and over: 9.2% (male 4,601/female 5,520) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 51.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 40.5 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 10.8 %
Potential support ratio: 9.3 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 29.3 years
Male: 29.3 years
Female: 29.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.52% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150

Birth rate:
16.57 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Death rate:
8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Net migration rate:
-3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Urbanization:
Urban population: 39% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) 40,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 139
Male: 10.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 11.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 73.55 years
Country comparison to the world: 121
Male: 71 years
Female: 76.35 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.12 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
54.3%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (1990)

Health expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Hospital bed density:
2.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 94% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 6% of population (2000 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 97% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 3% of population
total: 3% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
22.5% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 78

Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2003)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96%
Male: NA
Female: NA (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 16 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2009)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Grenada

Government type:
parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital:
Name: Saint George's
Geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence:
7 February 1974 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Constitution:
19 December 1973

Legal system:
common law based on English model

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)
Head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats, 10 members appointed by the government and 3 by the leader of the opposition) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 19 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
Election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 59%, NDC 41%; seats by party - NNP 15

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Grenada (consists of the High Court with 3 justices and a 2-tier Court of Appeal with NA justices)
note - the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Grenada; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is compri
Judge selection and term of office: justice selection and tenure NA
Subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals

Political parties and leaders:
Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]
New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee

International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian M.S. BRISTOL
Chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
Embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
Mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
Telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1177
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820

National anthem:
Name: "Hail Grenada"
Lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO
note: adopted 1974

Economy

Economy - overview:
Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the agricultural sector - particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation - which had been a key driver of economic growth. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of the hurricanes but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. Public debt-to-GDP is nearly 110%, leaving the THOMAS administration limited room to engage in public investments and social spending. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of tourism and an offshore financial industry, have also contributed to growth in national output; however, economic growth remained stagnant in 2010-12 after a sizeable contraction in 2009, because of the global economic slowdown's effects on tourism and remittances.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.467 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198
$1.478 billion (2011 est.)
$1.465 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$790 million (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194
1% (2011 est.)
-0.4% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,900 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96
$14,100 (2011 est.)
$14,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 85%
Government consumption: 16.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 21.5%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 22.9%
Imports of goods and services: -46%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 5.4%
Industry: 16.1%
Services: 78.5% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables

Industries:
food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
-2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Labor force:
47,580 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 11%
Industry: 20%
Services: 69% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
25% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 173
12.5% (2000)

Population below poverty line:
38% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $175.3 million
Expenditures: $215.9 million (2009 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
22.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Public debt:
110% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 13

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
3% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 50
6.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80
10.68% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$133.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180
$120.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$715.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172
$687.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$793.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162
$744.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
-$217.2 million (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 78
-$221 million (2010 est.)

Exports:
$36.36 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200
$36.36 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace

Exports - partners:
Nigeria 37%, St. Lucia 10.9%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.4%, St. Kitts and Nevis 6.6%, Dominica 6.6%, US 6.1% (2012)

Imports:
$296.3 million (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201
$296.3 million (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel

Imports - partners:
Trinidad and Tobago 45.9%, US 15.4%, China 4.3% (2012)

Debt - external:
$538 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172
$542 million (2009 est.)

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)

Energy

Electricity - production:
201.4 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 179

Electricity - consumption:
177.4 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
33,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2,803 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,976 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
429,300 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
28,400 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 179

Telephones - mobile cellular:
121,900 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Telephone system:
General assessment: automatic, island-wide telephone system
Domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
International: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2009)

Broadcast media:
the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is available; a dozen private radio stations also broadcast (2007)

Internet country code:
.gd

Internet hosts:
80 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 212

Internet users:
25,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Transportation

Airports:
3 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 1,127 km
Country comparison to the world: 183
Paved: 687 km
Unpaved: 440 km (2001)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Saint George's

Military

Military branches:
no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 27,468 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 22,596
Females age 16-49: 22,588 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 995
Female: 1,002 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
NA

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Illicit drugs:
small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US

Flag of Grenada



Flag description:
a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage