Introduction

Australia-Oceania :: Guam (territory of the US)

Background:
Spain ceded Guam to the US in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later. The military installation on the island is one of the most strategically important US bases in the Pacific.

Geography

Location:
Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates:
13 28 N, 144 47 E

Map references:
Oceania

Area:
Total: 544 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 195
Land: 544 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
125.5 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain:
volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low hills in center, mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Lamlam 406 m

Natural resources:
aquatic wildlife (supporting tourism), fishing (largely undeveloped)

Land use:
Arable land: 1.85%
Permanent crops: 16.67%
Other: 81.48% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2 sq km (2011)

Natural hazards:
frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare but potentially destructive typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues:
extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake, an exotic, invasive species

Geography - note:
largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Guamanian(s) (US citizens)
Adjective: Guamanian

Ethnic groups:
Chamorro 37.1%, Filipino 26.3%, other Pacific islander 11.3%, white 6.9%, other Asian 6.3%, other ethnic origin or race 2.3%, mixed 9.8% (2000 census)

Languages:
English 38.3%, Chamorro 22.2%, Philippine languages 22.2%, other Pacific island languages 6.8%, Asian languages 7%, other languages 3.5% (2000 census)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, other 15% (1999 est.)

Population:
160,378 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.4% (male 21,806/female 20,480)
15-24 years: 16.9% (male 13,961/female 13,156)
25-54 years: 39.5% (male 32,312/female 30,962)
55-64 years: 9.1% (male 7,325/female 7,273)
65 years and over: 8.2% (male 5,950/female 7,153) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 52.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 39.9 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 12.3 %
Potential support ratio: 8.1 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 29.7 years
Male: 29.2 years
Female: 30.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.34% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Birth rate:
17.23 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Death rate:
4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Net migration rate:
-8.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Urbanization:
Urban population: 93% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
HAGATNA (capital) 153,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 5.61 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 176
Male: 6.02 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 78.66 years
Country comparison to the world: 50
Male: 75.62 years
Female: 81.89 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
66.6%
note: percent of women aged 18-44 (2002)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 99% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (1990 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Territory of Guam
Conventional short form: Guam
Local long form: Guahan
Local short form: Guahan

Dependency status:
organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type:
NA

Capital:
Name: Hagatna (Agana)
Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 144 44 E
Time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)

Independence:
none (territory of the US)

National holiday:
Discovery Day, first Monday in March (1521)

Constitution:
Organic Act of Guam, 1 August 1950

Legal system:
common law modeled on US system; US federal laws apply

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; note - Guamanians are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Head of government: Governor Eddie CALVO (since 3 January 2011); Lieutenant Governor Ray TENORIO (since 3 January 2011)
Cabinet: heads of executive departments; appointed by the governor with the consent of the Guam legislature
Elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms, then must wait a full term before running again); election last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2014)
Election results: Eddie CALVO elected governor with 50.6% percent of vote against 49.4% for Carl GUTIERREZ; Ray TENORIO elected lieutenant governor

Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislature (15 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
Elections: last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 9, Republican Party 6
note: Guam elects one nonvoting delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Guam (consists of 3 justices)
note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court of Guam are heard by the US Supreme Court
Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Guam legislature; justices appointed for life subject to retention election every 10 years
Subordinate courts: Superior Court of Guam - includes several divisions; US Federal District Court for the District of Guam (a US territorial court; appeals beyond this court are heard before the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit)

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Carlo BRANCH]
Republican Party [Mike BENITO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Guam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan

International organization participation:
IOC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of the US)

National symbol(s):
coconut tree

National anthem:
Name: "Fanohge Chamoru" (Stand Ye Guamanians)
Lyrics/music: Ramon Manalisay SABLAN [English], Lagrimas UNTALAN [Chamoru]/Ramon Manalisay SABLAN
note: adopted 1919; the local anthem is also known as "Guam Hymn"; as a territory of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner," which generally follows the playing of "Stand Ye Guamanians," is official (see United States)

Economy

Economy - overview:
The economy depends largely on US national defense spending, tourism, other services. Total US grants, wages and salaries, and procurement outlays amounted to approximately $1.6 billion in 2010. Over the past 30 years, tourism has grown to become the largest income source following national defense.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.6 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.6 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.3% (2002-10 average est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$28,700 (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 55

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture - products:
fruits, copra, vegetables; eggs, pork, poultry, beef

Industries:
national defense, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
69,390
Country comparison to the world: 185
note: this number is for the civilian labor force only (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 0.3%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.2% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Population below poverty line:
23% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $942.6 million
Expenditures: $1.082 billion (FY10/11 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
20.5% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3% of GDP (FY10/11 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Exports:
$44 million (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Exports - commodities:
transshipments of refined petroleum products, construction materials, fish, food and beverage products

Imports:
$901 million (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Imports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured goods

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used

Energy

Electricity - production:
1.755 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity - consumption:
1.632 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
553,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 17

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
14,490 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Refined petroleum products - imports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.451 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
65,500 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Telephones - mobile cellular:
98,000 (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers
Domestic: digital system, including mobile-cellular service and local access to the Internet
International: country code - 1-671; major landing point for submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a transpacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
about a dozen TV channels, including digital channels; multi-channel cable TV services are available; roughly 20 radio stations (2009)

Internet country code:
.gu

Internet hosts:
23 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 219

Internet users:
90,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Transportation

Airports:
5 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 4
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 1,045 km (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 185

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Apra Harbor

Military

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 38,358
Females age 16-49: 36,869 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 1,701
Female: 1,608 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Guam



Flag description:
territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, a proa or outrigger canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; the proa is sailing in Agana Bay with the promontory of Punta Dos Amantes, near the capital, in the background; blue represents the sea and red the blood shed in the struggle against oppression
note: the US flag is the national flag