Introduction

Africa :: Guinea

Background:
Guinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE held democratic elections in 2010 and Alpha CONDE was elected president in the country's first free and fair elections since independence. CONDE in July 2011 survived an attack on his residence allegedly perpetrated by the military. In October 2012, he announced a cabinet reshuffle that removed three members of the military from their positions, making the current administration Guinea's first all-civilian government.

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates:
11 00 N, 10 00 W

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 245,857 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 79
Land: 245,717 sq km
Water: 140 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
Total: 3,399 km
Border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km

Coastline:
320 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain:
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use:
Arable land: 11.59%
Permanent crops: 2.81%
Other: 85.6% (2011)

Irrigated land:
949.2 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
226 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.55 cu km/yr (39%/10%/51%)
Per capita: 64.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Guinean(s)
Adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups:
Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%

Languages:
French (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language

Religions:
Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

Population:
11,176,026 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.2% (male 2,383,432/female 2,333,960)
15-24 years: 19.4% (male 1,096,664/female 1,075,842)
25-54 years: 30.4% (male 1,700,026/female 1,691,910)
55-64 years: 4.4% (male 235,705/female 259,752)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 175,896/female 222,839) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 83.2 %
Youth dependency ratio: 77.5 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 %
Potential support ratio: 17.5 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 18.6 years
Male: 18.4 years
Female: 18.8 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.64% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Birth rate:
36.3 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Death rate:
9.94 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Urbanization:
Urban population: 35.4% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
CONAKRY (capital) 1.597 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.8 (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
610 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 13

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 57.11 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 33
Male: 60.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 53.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 59.11 years
Country comparison to the world: 195
Male: 57.6 years
Female: 60.66 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.99 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
5.6% (2012)

Health expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Physicians density:
0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density:
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 90% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 74% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 10% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 26% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 32% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 18% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 68% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 82% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.3% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
79,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 45

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,700 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.4% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
20.8% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Education expenditures:
3.1% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 41%
Male: 52%
Female: 30% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 10 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 8 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 571,774
Percentage: 25 % (2003 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
Conventional short form: Guinea
Local long form: Republique de Guinee
Local short form: Guinee
Former: French Guinea

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Conakry
Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou

Independence:
2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)

Constitution:
7 May 2010 (Loi Fundamentale)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the French model

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010
Election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%

Legislative branch:
the legislature was dissolved by junta leader Moussa Dadis CAMARA in December 2008 and in February 2010, the Transition Government appointed a 155 member National Transition Council (CNT) that has since acted in the legislature's place
Elections: last held on 30 June 2002 (next election scheduled for 24 September 2013)

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, Commercial, and Administrative Chambers, and Chamber of Accounts; court consists of the first president, chamber presidents, and NA members)
Judge selection and term of office: court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; member tenure NA
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; labor court; military tribunal; High Court of Justice; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders:
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]

note: listed are the five most popular parties as of December 2012; overall, there are more than 130 registered parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Blaise CHERIF
Chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 478-3010

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
Embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
Mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
Telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97

National anthem:
Name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

Lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958

Economy

Economy - overview:
Guinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves and significant iron ore, gold, and diamond reserves. However, Guinea has been unable to profit from this potential, as rampant corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, and political uncertainty have drained investor confidence. In the time since a 2008 coup following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, have significantly curtailed their development programs. Throughout 2009, policies of the ruling military junta severely weakened the economy. The junta leaders spent and printed money at an accelerating rate, driving inflation and debt to perilously high levels. In early 2010, the junta collapsed and was replaced by a transition government, which ceded power in December 2010 to the country's first-ever democratically elected president, Alpha CONDE. International assistance and investment are expected to return to Guinea, but the levels will depend upon the ability of the new government to combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. IMF and World Bank programs will be especially critical as Guinea attempts to gain debt relief. International investors have expressed keen interest in Guinea''s vast iron ore reserves, which could further propel the country''s growth. The government put forward a new mining code in September 2011 that includes provisions to combat corruption, protect the environment, and review all existing mining contracts. Longer range plans to deploy broadband Internet throughout the country could spur economic growth as well.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$12.37 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148
$11.9 billion (2011 est.)
$11.45 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$5.632 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
3.9% (2011 est.)
1.9% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215
$1,100 (2011 est.)
$1,100 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
-20.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144
-6.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
3.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 88.6%
Government consumption: 14.7%
Investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 26.6%
Imports of goods and services: -47.3%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 22%
Industry: 45%
Services: 33% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (manioc), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber

Industries:
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processing

Industrial production growth rate:
4.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Labor force:
4.771 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 76%
Industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:
NA%

Population below poverty line:
47% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.7%
Highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 64
40.3 (1994)

Budget:
Revenues: $1.328 billion
Expenditures: $1.639 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
23.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 212
21.4% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
NA% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 6
22.25% (31 December 2005)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
27% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8
28% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.428 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135
$1.38 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.915 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152
$1.731 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.468 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147
$1.533 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
-$1.754 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133
-$1.215 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$1.348 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150
$1.428 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products

Exports - partners:
India 10.3%, Spain 9.2%, Chile 9%, US 6.9%, Germany 6.1%, Ireland 6%, Ukraine 5.5%, France 4.8% (2012)

Imports:
$2.606 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154
$2.097 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 14%, Netherlands 7.6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$174.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161
$111.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.584 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142
$3.139 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
6,986.1 (2012 est.)
6,658 (2011 est.)
5,726.1 (2010 est.)
5,500 (2009)
5,500 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
955 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Electricity - consumption:
888.2 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 203

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
393,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
68.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
31.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 185

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
8,671 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products - imports:
8,970 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.392 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 157

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
18,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.5 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Telephone system:
General assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
Domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeds 40 per 100 persons
International: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)

Internet country code:
.gn

Internet hosts:
15 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 223

Internet users:
95,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Transportation

Airports:
16 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 4
Over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Under 914 m:
2 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 1,185 km
Country comparison to the world: 87
Standard gauge: 238 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 947 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 44,348 km
Country comparison to the world: 83
Paved: 4,342 km
Unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)

Waterways:
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger system) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar

Military

Military branches:
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,359,203
Females age 16-49: 2,329,784 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,493,991
Females age 16-49: 1,535,418 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 118,443
Female: 115,901 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 6,552 (Cote d'Ivoire); 5,400 (Liberia) (2012)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg, work as street vendors or shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain, while Chinese and Vietnamese women are reportedly forced into prostitution in Guinea
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; a new police unit has been created to focus on human trafficking and child labor; the government has initiated five new trafficking investigations but has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, which represents a decrease in anti-trafficking law enforcement over the previous year; the government fails to provide victims with protective services and has not supported NGOs that assist victims but continues to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, forced prostitution of adults and debt bondage, which are not criminalized (2013)

Flag of Guinea



Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal