Africa :: Guinea

Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Guinea held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively. Alpha CONDE was elected to a five year term as president in 2010, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. Previously, Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy.


Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates:
11 00 N, 10 00 W

Map references:

Total: 245,857 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 79
Land: 245,717 sq km
Water: 140 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
Total: 4,046 km
Border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km

320 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt

Land use:
Arable land: 11.59%
Permanent crops: 2.81%
Other: 85.6% (2011)

Irrigated land:
949.2 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
226 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.55 cu km/yr (39%/10%/51%)
Per capita: 64.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands

People and Society

Noun: Guinean(s)
Adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups:
Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%

French (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language

Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

11,474,383 (July 2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 2,437,142/female 2,387,105)
15-24 years: 19.5% (male 1,130,432/female 1,108,834)
25-54 years: 30.4% (male 1,748,867/female 1,739,881)
55-64 years: 4.4% (male 243,032/female 266,578)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 182,084/female 230,428) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 82.4 %
Youth dependency ratio: 76.7 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %
Potential support ratio: 17.7 (2014 est.)

Median age:
Total: 18.7 years
Male: 18.4 years
Female: 18.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.63% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Birth rate:
36.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Death rate:
9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Urban population: 35.4% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
CONAKRY (capital) 1.786 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
610 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 13

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 55.24 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 30
Male: 58.17 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 52.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 59.6 years
Country comparison to the world: 195
Male: 58.08 years
Female: 61.17 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.93 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 18

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
5.6% (2012)

Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Physicians density:
0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density:
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 74.8% of population
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 25.2% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 32.7% of population
rural: 11.2% of population
total: 18.9% of population
urban: 67.3% of population
rural: 88.8% of population
total: 81.1% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
118,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.4% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.3% (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Education expenditures:
2.5% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 41%
Male: 52%
Female: 30% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 9 years
Male: 10 years
Female: 7 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 571,774
Percentage: 25 % (2003 est.)


Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
Conventional short form: Guinea
Local long form: Republique de Guinee
Local short form: Guinee
Former: French Guinea

Government type:

Name: Conakry
Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
7 regions and 1 governate*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore

2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)

previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2010)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the French model

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
Head of government: Prime Minister Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010
Election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%

Legislative branch:
unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members elected by a mixed system of direct popular vote and proportional party lists)
note: the legislature was dissolved by junta leader Moussa Dadis CAMARA in December 2008 and in February 2010, the Transition Government appointed a 155 member National Transition Council (CNT) that has since acted in the legislature's place pending elections finally held on 28 September 2013; the Assembly can be dissolved one time by the President, with snap elections required within 90 days
Elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next election scheduled for 2018)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, others 14

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, Commercial, and Administrative Chambers, and Chamber of Accounts; court consists of the first president, chamber presidents, and NA members); note - the court is due to be reorganized by the New National Assembly in accordance with the 2010 constitution and democratic transition
Judge selection and term of office: court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; member tenure NA
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders:
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]

note: listed are the five most popular parties as of January 2014; overall, there are more than 140 registered parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Blaise CHERIF (since 2 September 2011)
Chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 478-3010

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander Mark LASKARIS (since 10 September 2012)
Embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
Mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
Telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97

National anthem:
Name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

Lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958


Economy - overview:
Guinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, solar power, and agricultural resources. Guinea has historically been an exporter of agricultural commodities, but in recent years has shifted to importing the majority of food crops. Bauxite is Guinea’s main mineral resource as well as its main source of foreign currency. Guinea is the second largest producer of bauxite in the world and has the largest reserves of bauxite, estimated at 29 billion tons. The country also has significant iron ore, gold, and diamond reserves. However, Guinea has been unable to profit from this potential, as rampant corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, and political uncertainty have drained investor confidence. In the time since a 2008 coup following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs but, following the December 2010 presidential elections, the IMF approved a new 3-year ECF arrangement in 2012. Guinea in September 2012 reached HIPC completion point status. Further international assistance and investment are contingent on the ability of the government to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. International investors have expressed keen interest in Guinea's vast iron ore reserves, which could propel the country's growth. The government in April 2013 amended the September 2011 mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. Longer range plans to deploy broadband Internet throughout the country could spur economic growth as well. The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability and low international commodity prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$12.56 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151
$12.21 billion (2012 est.)
$11.74 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$6.544 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.9% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121
3.9% (2012 est.)
3.9% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,100 (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 218
$1,100 (2012 est.)
$1,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
NA% (2012 est.)
-6.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 84.7%
Government consumption: 12.4%
Investment in fixed capital: 37.1%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 22.8%
Imports of goods and services: -57%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 22.9%
Industry: 46.5%
Services: 30.5% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber

bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; alumina refining; light manufacturing, agricultural processing

Industrial production growth rate:
4.6% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Labor force:
5.409 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 76%
Industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:
47% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.7%
Highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 63
40.3 (1994)

Revenues: $1.508 billion
Expenditures: $1.839 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
23% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.9% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 214
15.2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
NA% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 6
22.25% (31 December 2005)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
26% (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 9
27% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.533 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
$1.492 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.881 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154
$1.818 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.518 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143
$1.539 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Current account balance:
-$1.754 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
-$1.215 billion (2011 est.)

$1.31 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153
$1.348 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products

Exports - partners:
India 10.6%, Spain 9.6%, Chile 9.4%, US 7.1%, Ireland 6.3%, Germany 6.3%, Ukraine 5.7%, France 5% (2012)

$2.384 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158
$2.606 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 14.2%, Netherlands 7.6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$183.1 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161
$174.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.584 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140
$3.139 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$145 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$145 million

Exchange rates:
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
6,875 (2013 est.)
6,986 (2012 est.)
5,726.1 (2010 est.)
5,500 (2009)
5,500 (2008)


Electricity - production:
969 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Electricity - consumption:
901.2 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
395,000 kW (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
68.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
31.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
8,671 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products - imports:
9,089 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.419 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
18,000 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.781 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Telephone system:
General assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
Domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeds 40 per 100 persons
International: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
15 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 223

Internet users:
95,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 161


16 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 4
Over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Under 914 m:
2 (2013)

Total: 1,185 km
Country comparison to the world: 87
Standard gauge: 238 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 947 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Total: 44,348 km
Country comparison to the world: 80
Paved: 4,342 km
Unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)

1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger system) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar


Military branches:
National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,359,203
Females age 16-49: 2,329,784 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,493,991
Females age 16-49: 1,535,418 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 118,443
Female: 115,901 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 6,493 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2013)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg, work as street vendors or shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain, while Chinese and Vietnamese women are reportedly forced into prostitution in Guinea
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; a new police unit has been created to focus on human trafficking and child labor; the government has initiated five new trafficking investigations but has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, which represents a decrease in anti-trafficking law enforcement over the previous year; the government fails to provide victims with protective services and has not supported NGOs that assist victims but continues to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, forced prostitution of adults and debt bondage, which are not criminalized (2013)

Flag of Guinea

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal


"Guinea." World Factbook, Relief Central, Accessed 24 April 2019.
Guinea. World Factbook. Accessed April 24, 2019.
Guinea. In World Factbook. Available from
Guinea [Internet]. In: World Factbook. [cited 2019 April 24]. Available from:
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Guinea ID - 563097 BT - The World Factbook 2014 UR - DB - Relief Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -