Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: Haiti

Background:
The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates:
19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 27,750 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 148
Land: 27,560 sq km
Water: 190 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
Total: 360 km
Border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km

Coastline:
1,771 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate:
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain:
mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower

Land use:
Arable land: 36.04%
Permanent crops: 10.09%
Other: 53.87% (2011)

Irrigated land:
970 sq km (2009)

Total renewable water resources:
14.03 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 1.2 cu km/yr (17%/3%/80%)
Per capita: 134.3 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note:
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Haitian(s)
Adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups:
black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Languages:
French (official), Creole (official)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%
note: roughly half of the population practices voodoo

Population:
9,893,934 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.6% (male 1,716,917/female 1,708,978)
15-24 years: 21.5% (male 1,064,069/female 1,066,614)
25-54 years: 34.8% (male 1,713,478/female 1,729,432)
55-64 years: 5% (male 235,278/female 258,330)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 178,842/female 221,996) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 65.2 %
Youth dependency ratio: 57.8 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.5 %
Potential support ratio: 13.4 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 21.9 years
Male: 21.6 years
Female: 22.1 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.99%
Country comparison to the world: 118
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2013 est.)

Birth rate:
23.35 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Net migration rate:
-5.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Urbanization:
Urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 3.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.143 million (2010)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.2 (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 50.92 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 41
Male: 54.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 46.94 deaths/1,000 live births
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 62.85 years
Country comparison to the world: 186
Male: 61.46 years
Female: 64.25 years
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.88 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
34.5% (2012)

Health expenditures:
6.9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Physicians density:
0.25 physicians/1,000 population (1998)

Hospital bed density:
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 69% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 31% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 24% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 17% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 76% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 83% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.9% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
120,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
7,100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
7.9% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
18.9% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 48.7%
Male: 53.4%
Female: 44.6% (2006 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 2,587,205
Percentage: 21 % (2006 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
Conventional short form: Haiti
Local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d' Ayiti
Local short form: Haiti/Ayiti

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Port-au-Prince
Geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions:
10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence:
1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution:
approved March 1987; this is Haiti's 23rd constitution

Legal system:
civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Michel MARTELLY (since 14 May 2011)
Head of government: Prime Minister Laurent LAMOTHE (since 16 May 2012)
Cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 28 November 2010; runoff on 20 March 2011 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
Election results: Michel MARTELLY won the runoff election held on 20 March 2011 with 67.6% of the vote against 31.7% for Mirlande MANIGAT

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
Elections: Senate - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off elections on 20 March 2011 (next regular election, for one third of seats, scheduled for 2012 but delayed); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off elections on 20 March 2011 (next regular election to be held in 2014)
Election results: 2010 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 6, ALTENATIV 4, LAVNI 1; 2010 Chamber of Deputies- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 32, Altenativ 11, Ansanm Nou Fo 10, AAA 8, LAVNI 7, RASANBLE 4, KONBIT 3, MOCHRENA 3, Platforme Liberation 3, PONT 3, Repons Peyizan 3, Independent 2, MAS 2, MODELH-PRDH 1, PLAPH 1, RESPE 1, Veye Yo 1, vacant 4

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges)
note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states "Judges of the Supreme Court.... are appointed for 10 years." whereas Article 177 states "Judges of the Supreme Court..... are appointed for life."
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts

Political parties and leaders:
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
Rally or RASAMBLE
Respect or RESPE
Socialist Action Movement or MAS
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA
The Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR
Chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
Consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Consulate(s): Orlando (FL)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela A. WHITE
Embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
Mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
Telephone: [509] 2229-8000
FAX: [509] 229-8028

National symbol(s):
Hispaniolan trogon (bird)

National anthem:
Name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

Lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
note: adopted 1904; the anthem is named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

Economy

Economy - overview:
Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth. Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake further inflicted $7.8 billion in damage and caused the country's GDP to contract 5.4% in 2010. In 2011, the Haitian economy had begun recovering slowly from the effects of the earthquake. However, two hurricanes adversely affected agricultural output and the slow public capital spending negatively affected the economic recovery in 2012. GDP growth for 2012 was 2.8%, down from 5.6% in 2011. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Preference Agreement (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement (HOPE II) Act helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. Congress voted in 2010 to extend the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020 under the Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act; the apparel sector accounts for about 90% of Haitian exports and nearly one-twentieth of GDP. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling 20% of GDP and representing more than five times the earnings from exports in 2012. Haiti suffers from a lack of investment, partly because of weak infrastructure such as access to electricity. In 2005, Haiti paid its arrears to the World Bank, paving the way for reengagement with the Bank. Haiti received debt forgiveness for over $1 billion through the Highly-Indebted Poor Country initiative in mid-2009. The remainder of its outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to nearly $1 billion. The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over half of its annual budget coming from outside sources. The MARTELLY administration in 2011 launched a campaign aimed at drawing foreign investment into Haiti as a means for sustainable development. To that end, the MARTELLY government in 2012 created a Commission for Commercial Code Reform, effected reforms to the justice sector, and inaugurated the Caracol industrial park in Haiti's north coast.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$13.15 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146
$12.79 billion (2011 est.)
$12.12 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.902 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115
5.6% (2011 est.)
-5.4% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,300 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208
$1,300 (2011 est.)
$1,200 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 24.7%
Industry: 19.4%
Services: 55.9% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver

Industries:
textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate:
6.5% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Labor force:
4.81 million
Country comparison to the world: 79
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 38.1%
Industry: 11.5%
Services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate:
40.6% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189
note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

Population below poverty line:
80% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 0.7%
Highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
59.2 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 7

Budget:
Revenues: $1.812 billion
Expenditures: $2.279 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
22.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167
8.4% (2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.6% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
11.61% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.107 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148
$1.003 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$3.509 billion (31 October 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139
$3.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.515 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144
$1.268 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
-$1.509 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128
-$1.728 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$785 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164
$767.5 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee

Exports - partners:
US 81.5% (2012)

Imports:
$2.64 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153
$2.962 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Imports - partners:
Dominican Republic 35.9%, US 24.7%, Netherlands Antilles 9.8%, China 6.6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.287 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128
$1.197 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$958.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162
$782.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$783.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96
$603.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
41.95 (2012 est.)
40.52 (2011 est.)
39.8 (2010 est.)
42.02 (2009)
39.216 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
726 million kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Electricity - consumption:
208.5 million kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
130,000 kW (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
79% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
14,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 185

Refined petroleum products - imports:
15,130 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 204

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.457 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
50,000 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.2 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Telephone system:
General assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
Domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services are expanding rapidly due, in part, to the introduction of low-cost GSM phones; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
International: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:
several TV stations, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; government-owned radio network; more than 250 private and community radio stations with about 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2007)

Internet country code:
.ht

Internet hosts:
555 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Internet users:
1 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Transportation

Airports:
14 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m:
8 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 4,266 km
Country comparison to the world: 155
Paved: 768 km
Unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince

Military

Military branches:
no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,398,804
Females age 16-49: 2,415,039 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,666,324
Females age 16-49: 1,704,364 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 115,246
Female: 115,282 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.4% of GDP (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 357,785 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2012)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; many of Haiti's trafficking cases involve children recruited to live with families in other towns in the hope of going to school but who instead become forced domestic servants known as restaveks; restaveks are vulnerable to abuse and make up a large proportion of Haiti's population of street children, who are forced into prostitution, begging, and street crime by violent gangs; Haitians are exploited in forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, and the US, and some Dominican women are forced into prostitution in Haiti; women and children living in camps for internally displaced people are at increased risk of sex trafficking and forced labor
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has made no discernible progress in prosecuting trafficking offenders largely because Haiti does not have a law specifically prohibiting human trafficking; the government does not provide direct or specialized services for trafficking victims and refers suspected victims to donor-funded NGOs, which provide shelter, food, medical, and psychosocial support; no proactive identification or assistance for adult victims was reported; an inter-ministerial working-group on human trafficking and a national commission for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor hae been created (2013)

Illicit drugs:
Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis

Flag of Haiti



Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes