World Factbook

Isle of Man

Introduction

Europe :: Isle of Man (British crown dependency)

Background:
Part of the Norwegian Kingdom of the Hebrides until the 13th century when it was ceded to Scotland, the isle came under the British crown in 1765. Current concerns include reviving the almost extinct Manx Gaelic language. Isle of Man is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the European Union. However, the UK Government remains constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.

Geography

Location:
Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland

Geographic coordinates:
54 15 N, 4 30 W

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 572 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 194
Land: 572 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
160 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm

Climate:
temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time

Terrain:
hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m
Highest point: Snaefell 621 m

Natural resources:
none

Land use:
Arable land: 43.86%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 56.14% (permanent pastures, forests, mountain, and heathland) (2011)

Irrigated land:
0 sq km (2011)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
waste disposal (both household and industrial); transboundary air pollution

Geography - note:
one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest and is a bird sanctuary

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Manxman (men), Manxwoman (women)
Adjective: Manx

Ethnic groups:
Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Britons

Languages:
English, Manx Gaelic (about 2% of the population has some knowledge)

Religions:
Protestant (Anglican, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of Friends), Roman Catholic

Population:
86,159 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 7,456/female 6,692)
15-24 years: 11.9% (male 5,298/female 4,983)
25-54 years: 39.7% (male 17,055/female 17,186)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 5,574/female 5,478)
65 years and over: 19.1% (male 7,597/female 8,840) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 43.1 years
Male: 42.4 years
Female: 43.8 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.84% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Birth rate:
11.27 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Death rate:
9.99 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Net migration rate:
7.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Urbanization:
Urban population: 51% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
DOUGLAS (capital) 26,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 195
Male: 4.16 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 80.87 years
Country comparison to the world: 24
Male: 79.25 years
Female: 82.61 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.95 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
NA

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 7.2%
Country comparison to the world: 124
Male: 9.5%
Female: 5.1% (2006)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Isle of Man
Abbreviation: I.O.M.

Dependency status:
British crown dependency

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Douglas
Geographic coordinates: 54 09 N, 4 29 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 24 local authorities each with its own elections

Independence:
none (British crown dependency)

National holiday:
Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution:
unwritten; note - The Isle of Man Constitution Act of 1961 does not embody the unwritten Manx Constitution

Legal system:
the laws of the UK where applicable apply and include Manx statutes

Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Adam WOOD (since 7 April 2011)
Head of government: Chief Minister Allan BELL (since 11 October 2011)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; the chief minister elected by the Tynwald for a five-year term; election last held on 11 October 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
Election results: House of Keys speaker Allan BELL elected chief minister by the Tynwald with 27 votes out of 30

Legislative branch:
bicameral Tynwald consists of the Legislative Council (11 seats; members composed of the President of Tynwald, the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of Keys) and the House of Keys (24 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: House of Keys - last held on 29 September 2011 (next to be held in September 2016)
Election results: House of Keys - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal Vannin Party 3, independents 21

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Isle of Man High Courts of Justice (consists of 3 permanent judges called "deemsters" and 1 judge of appeal; organized into the Staff of Government Division or Court of Appeal and the Civil Division)
note - appeals beyond the High Court of Justice are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor; judge tenure NA
Subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Summary Gaol Delivery; Summary Courts; magistrate's Court; specialized courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Progressive Government
Liberal Vannin Party [Peter KARRAN]
Manx Labor Party
Manx Nationalist Party (Mec Vannin) [Bernard MOFFATT]

note:
most members sit as independents

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Alliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog)
Mec Vannin (political party advocating a sovereign state and environment policies); note - has only had one member elected to the Tynwald

International organization participation:
UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (British crown dependency)

National symbol(s):
triskelion (a motif of three legs)

National anthem:
Name: "Arrane Ashoonagh dy Vannin" (O Land of Our Birth)
Lyrics/music: William Henry GILL [English], John J. KNEEN [Manx]/traditional
note: adopted 2003, in use since 1907; serves as a local anthem; as a British crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom) and is played when the sovereign, members of the royal family, or the lieutenant governor are present

Economy

Economy - overview:
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government offers low taxes and other incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island; this has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their contributions to GDP. The Isle of Man also attracts online gambling sites and the film industry. Trade is mostly with the UK. In January 2013, the Isle of Man signed a tax agreement with Guernsey and Jersey, in order to enable the islands' authorities to end tax avoidance and evasion. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU markets.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.076 billion (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176
$2.719 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.076 billion (2007 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.2% (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 56

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$53,800 (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 12
$35,000 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 1%
Industry: 11%
Services: 88% (FY08/09 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Industries:
financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Labor force:
41,790 (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: 2%
Manufacturing: 5%
Construction: 8%
Gas, electricity, and water: 1%
Transport and communication: 9%
Wholesale and retail distribution: 11%
Professional and scientific services: 20%
Public administration: 7%
Banking and finance: 23%
Tourism: 1%
Entertainment and catering: 5%
Miscellaneous services: 8% (2006)

Unemployment rate:
2% (April 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15
1.8% (October 2010 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $965 million
Expenditures: $943 million (FY05/06 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
23.7% of GDP (FY05/06 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.5% of GDP (FY05/06 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143
3.1% (2006)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Exports:
$NA

Exports - commodities:
tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb

Imports:
$NA

Imports - commodities:
timber, fertilizers, fish

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Manx pounds (IMP) per US dollar -
0.6307 (2011)
0.6472 (2011)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)

Communications

Telephone system:
Domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system
International: country code - 44; fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable

Broadcast media:
national public radio broadcasts over 3 FM stations and 1 AM station; 2 commercial broadcasters operating with 1 having multiple FM stations; receives radio and TV services via relays from British TV and radio broadcasters (2008)

Internet country code:
.im

Internet hosts:
895 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 219

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 63 km
Country comparison to the world: 128
Narrow gauge: 6 km 1.076-m gauge (6 km electrified); 57 km 0.914-m gauge (29 km electrified)
note: primarily summer tourist attractions (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 500 km (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Merchant marine:
Total: 321
Country comparison to the world: 30
By type: bulk carrier 59, cargo 55, chemical tanker 52, container 7, liquefied gas 43, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 93, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 5
Foreign-owned: 223 (Bermuda 7, Chile 9, Denmark 30, Germany 56, Greece 62, Ireland 1, Japan 19, Malaysia 6, Norway 30, South Africa 2, US 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Douglas, Ramsey

Military

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 15,206
Females age 16-49: 15,127 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 507
Female: 494 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Isle of Man



Flag description:
red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (triskelion), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used; the flag is based on the coat-of-arms of the last recognized Norse King of Mann, Magnus III (r. 1252-65); the triskelion has its roots in an early Celtic sun symbol