Cote d'Ivoire


Africa :: Cote d'Ivoire

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. The war ended in 2003 with a cease fire that left the country divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month stand-off. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. Several thousand UN peacekeepers and several hundred French troops remain in Cote d'Ivoire to support the transition process. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's infrastructure and military after the five months of post-electoral fighting and faces ongoing threats from GBAGBO supporters, many of whom have sought shelter in Ghana. GBAGBO is in The Hague awaiting trial for crimes against humanity.


Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references:

Total: 322,463 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 69
Land: 318,003 sq km
Water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
Total: 3,458 km
Border countries: Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km

515 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm

tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
Highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower

Land use:
Arable land: 8.99%
Permanent crops: 13.65%
Other: 77.36% (2011)

Irrigated land:
727.5 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
81.14 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 1.55 cu km/yr (41%/21%/38%)
Per capita: 83.07 cu m/yr (2008)

Natural hazards:
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues:
deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People and Society

Noun: Ivoirian(s)
Adjective: Ivoirian

Ethnic groups:
Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) (1998)

French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken

Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.)
note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)

Country comparison to the world: 55
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38.4% (male 4,427,193/female 4,353,342)
15-24 years: 21% (male 2,415,504/female 2,378,196)
25-54 years: 33% (male 3,864,593/female 3,677,996)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 494,063/female 493,213)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 361,135/female 383,710) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 79.7 %
Youth dependency ratio: 74 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 %
Potential support ratio: 17.6 (2014 est.)

Median age:
Total: 20.3 years
Male: 20.3 years
Female: 20.2 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.96% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Birth rate:
29.25 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Death rate:
9.67 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Urban population: 51.3% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.288 million; YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 966,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011-12 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
400 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 60.16 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 22
Male: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 53.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 58.01 years
Country comparison to the world: 200
Male: 56.9 years
Female: 59.16 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.63 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
18.2% (2012)

Health expenditures:
6.8% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Physicians density:
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking water source:
urban: 91.5% of population
rural: 67.8% of population
total: 80.2% of population
urban: 8.5% of population
rural: 32.2% of population
total: 19.8% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 32.7% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 21.9% of population
urban: 67.3% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 78.1% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
450,000 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 18

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
31,200 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 13

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease: rabies
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.2% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
29.4% (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Education expenditures:
4.6% of GDP (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 56.9%
Male: 65.6%
Female: 47.6% (2011 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 1,796,802
Percentage: 35 % (2006 est.)


Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
Conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
Local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
Local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
Former: Ivory Coast

Government type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Name: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
Geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan

7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

previous 1960; latest approved by referendum 23 July 2000; amended 2012 (2012)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction under Article 12(3)of the Rome Statute

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010)
Head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 21 November 2012)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 October and 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA 54.1%, Laurent GBAGBO 45.9%; note - President OUATTARA was declared winner by the election commission and took the oath of office on 4 December; Prime Minister SORO resigned from the incumbent administration and was subsequently appointed to the same position by OUATTARA; former president GBAGBO refused to cede resulting in a 5-month stand-off and was finally forced to stand down in April 2011

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (255 seats; members elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: elections last held on 11 December 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - RDR 42.1%, PDCI 28.6%, UDPCI 3.1%, RDP 1.7%, other 24.5% ; seats by party - RDR 127, PDCI 76, UDPCI 7, RDP 4, other 2, independents 39

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 "Bench" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts

Political parties and leaders:
Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]
Democracy and Liberty for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal AFFI NGUESSAN]
Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Daniel AKA AHIZ]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]
over 144 smaller registered parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE (since 11 February 2011)
Chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Terrance MCCULLEY
Embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
Mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
Telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 32

National symbol(s):

National anthem:
Name: "L'Abidjanaise" (Song of Abidjan)

Lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital


Economy - overview:
Cote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and in climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country is also producing gold. The country also produces oil and boasted two offshore oil finds in 2012. Since the end of the civil war in 2003, political turmoil has continued to damage the economy, resulting in the loss of foreign investment and slow economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. Cote d'Ivoire's long-term challenges include political instability and degrading infrastructure.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$43.67 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
$40.43 billion (2012 est.)
$36.84 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$28.28 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
8% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 12
9.8% (2012 est.)
-4.7% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199
$1,700 (2012 est.)
$1,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 79.1%
Government consumption: 9.1%
Investment in fixed capital: 12.7%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 53.2%
Imports of goods and services: -54.1%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 26.3%
Industry: 21.3%
Services: 52.4% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate:
7% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Labor force:
7.928 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 68%
Industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:
42% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.2%
Highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.5 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 51
36.7 (1995)

Revenues: $5.7 billion
Expenditures: $6.665 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
20.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Public debt:
45.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82
47.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
1.3% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 159
4% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$7.606 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89
$6.552 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$11.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
$9.877 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$7.953 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
$6.918 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$7.829 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA (31 December 2011)
$7.099 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
-$623 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108
-$266.5 million (2012 est.)

$12.96 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$12.53 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish

Exports - partners:
Netherlands 8.8%, US 8.1%, Nigeria 8%, Germany 7.5%, France 4.5%, Canada 4.2% (2012)

$9.859 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103
$8.973 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
Nigeria 25%, France 11%, China 7.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$4.085 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100
$3.928 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$8.959 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
$8.096 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
504.6 (2013 est.)
510.29 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)


Electricity - production:
5.721 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - consumption:
3.865 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Electricity - exports:
471 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.222 million kW (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
50.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
49.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Crude oil - production:
38,560 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Crude oil - exports:
32,190 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Crude oil - imports:
49,780 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil - proved reserves:
100 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Refined petroleum products - production:
55,890 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
24,630 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123

Refined petroleum products - exports:
38,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Refined petroleum products - imports:
4,810 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas - production:
1.5 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61

Natural gas - consumption:
1.5 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Natural gas - proved reserves:
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6.68 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
268,000 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Telephones - mobile cellular:
19.827 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 49

Telephone system:
General assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have increased since that time with two fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
Domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to roughly 80 per 100 persons
International: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:
2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
9,115 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Internet users:
967,300 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 103


27 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 7
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
Under 914 m:
3 (2013)

1 (2013)

condensate 101 km; gas 256 km; oil 118 km; oil/gas/water 5 km; water 7 km (2013)

Total: 660 km
Country comparison to the world: 104
Narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)

Total: 81,996 km
Country comparison to the world: 58
Paved: 6,502 km
Unpaved: 75,494 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)

980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro
Oil/gas terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal


Military branches:
Republican Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Republiques de Cote d'Ivoire, FRCI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire)
note: FRCI is the former Armed Forces of the New Forces (FAFN) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 5,247,522
Females age 16-49: 5,047,901 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 3,360,087
Females age 16-49: 3,196,033 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 247,011
Female: 242,958 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.65% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 56
1.49% of GDP (2011)
1.65% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: at least 70,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-2011, as well as civil war from 2002-2004; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2013)
Stateless persons: 700,000 (2012); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center (2008)

Flag of Cote d'Ivoire

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France