Introduction

Europe :: Jersey(British crown dependency)

Background:
Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Jersey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the European Union. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.

Geography

Location:
Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates:
49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 116 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 225
Land: 116 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
70 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 3 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm

Climate:
temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain:
gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: unnamed elevation 143 m

Natural resources:
arable land

Land use:
Arable land: NA
Permanent crops: NA
Other: NA

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
NA

Geography - note:
largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Channel Islander(s)
Adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups:
Jersey 51.1%, Britons 34.8%, Irish, French, and other white 6.6%, Portuguese/Madeiran 6.4%, other 1.1% (2001 census)

Languages:
English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

Religions:
Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic

Population:
95,732 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.1% (male 7,998/female 7,453)
15-24 years: 14.9% (male 7,243/female 7,000)
25-54 years: 41.5% (male 19,854/female 19,836)
55-64 years: 12.1% (male 5,619/female 5,954)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 6,307/female 8,468) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 46 %
Youth dependency ratio: 21.8 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 24.2 %
Potential support ratio: 4.1
note: data represents the Channel Islands (2013)

Median age:
Total: 39.9 years
Male: 37.7 years
Female: 41.7 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.82% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Birth rate:
11.38 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Death rate:
7.59 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Net migration rate:
4.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Urbanization:
Urban population: 31% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 201
Male: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 81.57 years
Country comparison to the world: 14
Male: 79.13 years
Female: 84.15 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.66 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
NA

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
Conventional short form: Jersey

Dependency status:
British crown dependency

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Saint Helier
Geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes: Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity

Independence:
none (British crown dependency)

National holiday:
Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system:
the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; local statutes

Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir John MCCOLL (since 26 September 2011)
Head of government: Chief Minister Ian GORST (18 December 2011); Bailiff Michael BIRT (since 9 July 2009)
Cabinet: Cabinet (since December 2005)
Elections: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (58 seats; 53 are voting members, of which 12 are senators elected for six-year terms, 12 are constables or heads of parishes elected for three-year terms, 29 are deputies elected for three-year terms; the 5 non-voting members include the bailiff and the deputy bailiff, the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General appointed by the monarch)
Elections: last held on 27 April 2011 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 53; note - starting with the 2014 elections, the number of Senators will be reduced to 8

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges and organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Civil and Criminal Divisions); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners - part-time judges, and NA lay people referred to as jurats)
Judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for extent of good behavior; Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for extent of good behavior; jurats appointed until retirement at age 72
Subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)

Political parties and leaders:
Two declared parties:
Centre Party
Jersey Democratic Alliance

note: all senators and deputies elected in 2008 were independents

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association)
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (British crown dependency)

National symbol(s):
Jersey cow

National anthem:
Name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)
Lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE
note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2010 the financial services sector accounted for about 50% of the island's output. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. Tourism accounts for one-quarter of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey with the result that an electronics industry has developed, displacing more traditional industries. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey''s food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven. In January 2013, Jersey signed a tax agreement with Guernsey and the Isle of Man, in order to enable the islands'' authorities to end tax avoidance and evasion. Living standards come close to those of the UK.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.1 billion (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

GDP (official exchange rate):
$5.1 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
NA%

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$57,000 (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2%
Industry: 2%
Services: 96% (2010)

Agriculture - products:
potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products

Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
53,380 (June 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Unemployment rate:
1.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 9
2.2% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $829 million
Expenditures: $851 million (2005)

Taxes and other revenues:
16.3% of GDP (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.4% of GDP (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Exports:
$NA

Exports - commodities:
light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers

Imports:
$NA

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar
0.6307 (2012)
0.6236 (2011)
0.6472 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - consumption:
630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
73,800 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Telephones - mobile cellular:
108,000 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 191

Telephone system:
General assessment: increasingly modern system, with broadband access
Domestic: digital telephone system launch announced in 2006 now implemented; fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined fixed and mobile-cellular density exceeds 100 per 100 persons
International: country code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2010)

Broadcast media:
multiple UK terrestrial television broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating (2009)

Internet country code:
.je

Internet hosts:
264 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Internet users:
29,500 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 221

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 576 km (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 191

Merchant marine:
Registered in other countries: 14 (Gibraltar 1, India 2, Marshall Islands 11) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Ports and terminals:
Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Military

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 18,688
Females age 16-49: 18,615 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 664
Female: 590 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Jersey



Flag description:
white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added