Introduction

Africa :: Kenya

Background:
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over a constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred on 4 March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, won the March elections in the first round by a close margin and was sworn into office on 9 April 2013.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 580,367 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 49
Land: 569,140 sq km
Water: 11,227 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries:
Total: 3,477 km
Border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, South Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline:
536 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain:
low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources:
limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower

Land use:
Arable land: 9.48%
Permanent crops: 1.12%
Other: 89.4% (2011)

Irrigated land:
1,032 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
30.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 2.74 cu km/yr (17%/4%/79%)
Per capita: 72.96 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards:
recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues:
water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Kenyan(s)
Adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups:
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%

Languages:
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Religions:
Christian 82.5% (Protestant 47.4%, Catholic 23.3%, other 11.8%), Muslim 11.1%, Traditionalists 1.6%, other 1.7%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 census)

Population:
44,037,656 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.4% (male 9,357,084/female 9,299,586)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 4,148,153/female 4,147,896)
25-54 years: 32.4% (male 7,210,891/female 7,070,217)
55-64 years: 3.6% (male 719,374/female 876,458)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 529,873/female 678,124) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 81.5 %
Youth dependency ratio: 76.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
Potential support ratio: 20.6 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 18.9 years
Male: 18.8 years
Female: 19 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.27% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Birth rate:
30.08 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Death rate:
7.12 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Net migration rate:
-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Urbanization:
Urban population: 24% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 4.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
NAIROBI (capital) 3.375 million; Mombassa 966,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.8
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
360 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 42.18 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 51
Male: 46.89 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 37.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 63.29 years
Country comparison to the world: 180
Male: 61.84 years
Female: 64.77 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.76 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
45.5% (2008/09)

Health expenditures:
4.8% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Physicians density:
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2002)

Hospital bed density:
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 82% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 59% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 18% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 41% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 32% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 32% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 68% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 68% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
6.3% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 11

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.5 million (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 4

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
80,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 6

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.2% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.4% (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Education expenditures:
6.7% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 87.4%
Male: 90.6%
Female: 84.2% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2009)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 2,146,058
Percentage: 26 % (2000 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
Conventional short form: Kenya
Local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
Local short form: Kenya
Former: British East Africa

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Nairobi
Geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot

Independence:
12 December 1963 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 December (1963); Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963); Mashujaa Day, 20 October (2010)

Constitution:
27 August 2010; note - the new constitution introduced major institutional, electoral, and structural reforms, including devolution of power to 47 counties and establishment of a bicameral legislature; implementation of all elements of the constitution is scheduled to take five years and requires significant legislative action, much of which has been taken

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - according to the 2008 power sharing agreement the role of prime minister was created though not well defined, following the new constitution the position was abolished after the March 2013 elections
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving a simple majority of votes, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2018); vice president appointed by the president; note - the new constitution had set elections for August 2011 but elections were delayed to 2013
Election results: President Uhuru KENYATTA elected in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA 50.5%, Raila ODINGA 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI 4.0%, other 1.8%

Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament consists of a Senate (67 seats) and a National Assembly (349 seats); members to serve five-year terms
Elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 96, TNA 89, URP 75, WDM-K 26, UDF 12, FORD-K 10, KANU 6, NFK 6, APK 5, FORD-P 4, Independents 4, other 16 National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODM 96, TNA 89, URP 75, WDM-K 26, UDF 12, FORD-K 10, KANU 6, NFK 6, APK 5, FORD-P 4, Independents 4, other 16

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and five judges)
Judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JCS) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JCS and appointed by president; chief justice serves nonrenewable 10-year terms or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
Subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; courts martial; magistrates' courts; religious courts

Political parties and leaders:
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
The National Party Alliance or TNA [Uhuru KENYATTA]
National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Martha KARUA]
Orange Democratic Movement of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]
United Democratic Forum Party or UDF [Musalia MUDAVADI]
United Republican Party or URP [William RUTO]
Wiper Democratic Movement or WDM [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]
Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic and other Christian churches
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]

Other: labor unions, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Elkanah ODEMBO Absalom
Chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC
Embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P. O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
Mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
Telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157

National symbol(s):
lion

National anthem:
Name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)

Lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; the anthem is based on a traditional Kenyan folk song

Economy

Economy - overview:
Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. Low infrastructure investment threatens Kenya's long-term position as the largest East African economy. In the key December 2002 elections, Daniel MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support, the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending, despite little action on the government''s part to deal with corruption. Unemployment is very high. The country has experienced chronic budget deficits, inflationary pressures, and sharp currency depreciation - as a result of high food and fuel import prices. The discovery of oil in March 2012 provides an opportunity for Kenya to balance its growing trade deficit if the deposits are found to be commercially viable and Kenya is able to develop a port and pipeline to export its oil.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$77.14 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$73.67 billion (2011 est.)
$70.58 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$41.12 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
4.4% (2011 est.)
5.8% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198
$1,800 (2011 est.)
$1,800 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
11.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119
11% of GDP (2011 est.)
11.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 74.6%
Government consumption: 17.8%
Investment in fixed capital: 22%
Investment in inventories: -0.6%
Exports of goods and services: 28%
Imports of goods and services: -41.7%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 24.2%
Industry: 14.8%
Services: 61% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Industries:
small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Labor force:
18.89 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 75%
Industry and services: 25% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:
40% (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187
40% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line:
50% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 1.8%
Highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42.5 (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
44.9 (1997)

Budget:
Revenues: $7.418 billion
Expenditures: $9.485 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
18% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Public debt:
51.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
52.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195
14% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
7% (31 December 2010 est.)
NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41
15.05% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$8.264 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80
$7.32 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$21.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$17.89 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$19.59 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
$18.25 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$10.2 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$14.46 billion (31 December 2010)
$10.76 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$3.948 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158
-$3.536 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$6.285 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104
$5.792 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement

Exports - partners:
Uganda 10.5%, Tanzania 10.2%, Netherlands 7.1%, UK 6.7%, US 5.8%, Egypt 5.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.5% (2012)

Imports:
$15.1 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89
$14.16 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics

Imports - partners:
India 20.7%, China 15.3%, UAE 9.5%, Saudi Arabia 6.7% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.712 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
$4.265 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$11.01 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98
$10.26 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$3.059 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91
$2.618 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$319.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82
$299.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
84.53 (2012 est.)
88.811 (2011 est.)
79.233 (2010 est.)
77.352 (2009)
68.358 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
6.573 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity - consumption:
5.516 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110

Electricity - exports:
27 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Electricity - imports:
38 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.706 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
43.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
43.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Crude oil - imports:
32,560 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Refined petroleum products - production:
30,960 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
79,410 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Refined petroleum products - exports:
1,065 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Refined petroleum products - imports:
34,990 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 157

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
12.25 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
283,500 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Telephones - mobile cellular:
28.08 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Telephone system:
General assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
Domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 65 per 100 persons in 2011
International: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2011)

Broadcast media:
about a half-dozen privately owned TV stations and a state-owned TV broadcaster that operates 2 channels; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; a large number of private radio stations, including provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2007)

Internet country code:
.ke

Internet hosts:
71,018 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 88

Internet users:
3.996 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Transportation

Airports:
197 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 16
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
Under 914 m:
60 (2013)

Pipelines:
oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 2,066 km
Country comparison to the world: 71
Narrow gauge: 2,066 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 160,886 km
Country comparison to the world: 30
Paved: 11,197 km
Unpaved: 149,689 km (2008)

Waterways:
none specifically, the only significant inland waterway in the country is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)

Merchant marine:
Registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Ports and terminals:
Kisumu, Mombasa

Military

Military branches:
Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Air Force, Kenya Navy (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 9,768,140
Females age 16-49: 9,466,257 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 6,361,268
Females age 16-49: 6,106,870 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 422,104
Female: 416,927 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.8% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 78

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to almost a quarter million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 34,800 (South Sudan); 34,000 (Ethiopia); 11,500 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 6,000 (Sudan) (2012); 471,914 (Somalia) (2013)
IDPs: at least 300,000 (2007-08 post-election violence; the status of the estimated 300,000 IDPs from the 2007-08 post-election violence who found refuge in host communities rather than camps - and IDPs displaced through natural disasters, drought, development and environmental projects, land disputes, cattle rustling, and inter-communal violence - is not captured in Kenya's national database; in 2012, inter-communal violence displaced approximately 118,000 people and floods displaced an estimated 100,000) (2012)
Stateless persons: 20,000 (2012); note - the stateless population is composed of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; they did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are lumped in with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Kenya is a source, transit, and destination country for adults and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Kenyan children are forced to work in domestic service, agriculture, fishing, cattle herding, street vending, begging, and prostitution; Kenyan economic migrants to other East African countries, South Sudan, Europe, the US, and the Middle East are at times exploited in domestic servitude, massage parlors or brothels, or forced manual labor; children from Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda are subjected to forced labor and prostitution in Kenya; Somali refugees living in the Dadaab complex may be forced into prostitution or work on tobacco farms
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Kenya does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government enacted the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act in October 2012 but has not launched and implemented its national plan of action, convened the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Advisory Committee, taken tangible action against trafficking complicity among law enforcement officials, provided shelter and other protective services for adult victims, monitor the work of overseas labor recruitment agencies, or provide wide-scale anti-trafficking training to its officials; efforts to assist and care for child victims remain strong; corruption among officials continue to hamper efforts to bring traffickers to justice (2013)

Illicit drugs:
widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities

Flag of Kenya



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom