World Factbook

Kyrgyzstan

Introduction

Central Asia :: Kyrgyzstan

Background:
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual fleeing to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.

Geography

Location:
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references:
Asia

Area:
Total: 199,951 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 87
Land: 191,801 sq km
Water: 8,150 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
Total: 3,051 km
Border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain:
peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
Highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

Natural resources:
abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use:
Arable land: 6.38%
Permanent crops: 0.37%
Other: 93.24%
note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural-growth walnut forest (2011)

Irrigated land:
10,210 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources:
23.62 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 8.01 cu km/yr (3%/4%/93%)
Per capita: 1,558 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
Adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups:
Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uighur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)

Languages:
Kyrgyz (official) 64.7%, Uzbek 13.6%, Russian (official) 12.5%, Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)

Religions:
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Population:
5,548,042 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.7% (male 842,511/female 805,295)
15-24 years: 19.4% (male 547,456/female 530,702)
25-54 years: 39.2% (male 1,063,702/female 1,111,423)
55-64 years: 6.8% (male 162,851/female 213,254)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 104,129/female 166,719) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 52.7 %
Youth dependency ratio: 46.4 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
Potential support ratio: 15.7 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 25.4 years
Male: 24.5 years
Female: 26.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.97% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Birth rate:
23.67 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Death rate:
6.83 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Net migration rate:
-7.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Urbanization:
Urban population: 35.3% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BISHKEK (capital) 854,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.6 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
71 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 29.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 68
Male: 34.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 25.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 69.75 years
Country comparison to the world: 154
Male: 65.58 years
Female: 74.21 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.71 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
47.8% (2005/06)

Health expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Physicians density:
2.3 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
5.06 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 85% of population
total: 90% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 15% of population
total: 10% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 93% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 7% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,800 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
15.5% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.7% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Education expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.2%
Male: 99.5%
Female: 99% (2009 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 13 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 563,920
Percentage: 40.3 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 14.6%
Country comparison to the world: 89
Male: 13.6%
Female: 16.2% (2006)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
Local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Local short form: Kyrgyzstan
Former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Bishkek
Geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
Time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence:
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution:
27 June 2010

Legal system:
civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jantoro SATYBALDIEV (since 5 September 2012); First Deputy Prime Minister - Joomart OTORBAEV (since 5 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers - Tayyrbek SARPASHEV and Kamila TALIEVA (since 5 September 2012), Tokon MAMYTOV (since 19 June 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security are appointed solely by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government
Election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV 14.3%, other 7.8%; Jantoro SATYBALDIEV elected prime minister; parliamentary vote - 111-2

Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
Subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts

Political parties and leaders:
Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]
Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]

International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Mukhtar JUMALIEV
Chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
Consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela SPRATLEN
Embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264

National symbol(s):
gyrfalcon

National anthem:
Name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)

Lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992

Economy

Economy - overview:
Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. The economy depends heavily on gold exports - mainly from output at the Kumtor gold mine - and on remittances from Kyrgyzstani migrant workers primarily in Russia. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. In 2005, the BAKIEV government and international financial institutions initiated a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. The government made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures in 2006, before boosting expenditures more than 20% in 2007-08. GDP grew about 8% annually in 2007-08, partly due to higher gold prices internationally, but slowed to 2.9% in 2009. The overthrow of President BAKIEV in April 2010 and subsequent ethnic clashes left hundreds dead and damaged infrastructure. Shrinking trade and agricultural production, as well as the political instability caused by the change in government, caused GDP to contract 0.5% in 2010. The fiscal deficit widened to 11% of GDP in 2010, reflecting significant increases in crisis-related spending, including both rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure and bank recapitalization. The economy grew 5.7% in 2011, but slowed to around 1% in 2012, primarily due to an 83% decrease in production from Kumtor. As a result, the budget deficit increased at year's end. Progress in fighting corruption, improving transparency in licensing, business permits and taxations, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment are key to future growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$13.5 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144
$13.62 billion (2011 est.)
$12.85 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$6.473 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196
6% (2011 est.)
-0.5% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,400 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 185
$2,500 (2011 est.)
$2,300 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
2.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140
19% of GDP (2011 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 86.5%
Government consumption: 20.7%
Investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
Investment in inventories: -0.5%
Exports of goods and services: 53.3%
Imports of goods and services: -85.7%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 20.8%
Industry: 23.3%
Services: 55.9% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool

Industries:
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate:
-20% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Labor force:
2.344 million (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 48%
Industry: 12.5%
Services: 39.5% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.6% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
18% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
33.7% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.8%
Highest 10%: 27.8% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.4 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 96
29 (2001)

Budget:
Revenues: $1.908 billion
Expenditures: $2.138 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76
16.5% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
13.73% (22 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108
2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
28.43% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 4
34.07% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.372 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137
$1.151 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.952 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151
$1.654 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$932.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160
$761.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$165 million (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 115
$79 million (31 December 2010)
$71.84 million (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$546.3 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97
-$252.4 million (2011 est.)

Exports:
$2 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142
$2.271 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat, tobacco; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes

Exports - partners:
Uzbekistan 28.8%, Kazakhstan 22%, Russia 14.6%, China 7%, UAE 6.3%, Afghanistan 5.7% (2012)

Imports:
$4.981 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130
$3.936 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 55.9%, Russia 17.7%, Kazakhstan 6.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.066 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121
$1.835 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$3.722 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130
$5.486 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.572 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95
$1.312 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$39.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89
$39.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
soms (KGS) per US dollar -
47.005 (2012 est.)
46.144 (2011 est.)
45.964 (2010 est.)
42.905 (2009)
36.108 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
14.9 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Electricity - consumption:
7.29 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Electricity - exports:
2.62 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Electricity - imports:
535 million kWh (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.64 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
20.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
79.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Crude oil - production:
1,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Crude oil - imports:
2,387 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Crude oil - proved reserves:
40 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Refined petroleum products - production:
2,607 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
16,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Refined petroleum products - exports:
5,902 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Refined petroleum products - imports:
28,940 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88

Natural gas - production:
12.5 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas - consumption:
462.5 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - exports:
NA (2010 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
450 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
4.131 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
502,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 99

Telephones - mobile cellular:
6.277 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Telephone system:
General assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
Domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership was about 115 per 100 persons in 2011
International: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:
.kg

Internet hosts:
115,573 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Internet users:
2.195 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Transportation

Airports:
28 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 18
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
Under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m:
8 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 470 km
Country comparison to the world: 112
Broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 34,000 km (2003)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Waterways:
600 km (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Ports and terminals:
Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)

Military

Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; service obligation - 1 year, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the callup mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,456,881
Females age 16-49: 1,470,317 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,119,224
Females age 16-49: 1,257,263 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 56,606
Female: 54,056 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 172,000 (June 2010 violence in southern Kyrgyzstan between the Kyrgyz majority and the Uzbek minority) (2012)
Stateless persons: 15,473 (2012); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgystan, have lived there many years, or are married to a Kyrgyz citizen; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits

Illicit drugs:
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates

Flag of Kyrgyzstan



Flag description:
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth