World Factbook

Luxembourg

Introduction

Europe :: Luxembourg

Background:
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area. In January 2013, Luxembourg assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

Geography

Location:
Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 2,586 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 179
Land: 2,586 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
Total: 359 km
Border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain:
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
Highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use:
Arable land: 23.9%
Permanent crops: 0.58%
Other: 75.52% (includes Belgium) (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Total renewable water resources:
3.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.06 cu km/yr (65%/33%/1%)
Per capita: 135.9 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Luxembourger(s)
Adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups:
Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)

Languages:
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)

Population:
514,862 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 47,679/female 44,812)
15-24 years: 12.6% (male 33,182/female 31,860)
25-54 years: 42.3% (male 109,075/female 108,922)
55-64 years: 11.8% (male 30,481/female 30,422)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 32,892/female 45,537) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 46.5 %
Youth dependency ratio: 25.7 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 20.8 %
Potential support ratio: 4.8 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 39.6 years
Male: 38.5 years
Female: 40.6 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.13% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Birth rate:
11.72 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Death rate:
8.52 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Net migration rate:
8.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Urbanization:
Urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
LUXEMBOURG (capital) 90,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.3 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 193
Male: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 79.88 years
Country comparison to the world: 37
Male: 76.64 years
Female: 83.33 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.77 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Health expenditures:
7.8% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Physicians density:
2.86 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
5.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 14 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 16.8%
Country comparison to the world: 78
Male: 13.3%
Female: 20.8% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Conventional short form: Luxembourg
Local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Local short form: Luxembourg

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
Name: Luxembourg
Geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence:
1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday:
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution:
17 October 1868; occasional revisions

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP

Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)
Election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
Judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
Subordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Michel WOLTER]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Fabienne LENTZ and David WAGNER]
Democratic Party or DP [Xavier BETTEL]
Green Party [Sam TANSON and Christian GOEBEL]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]
other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
ABBL (bankers' association)
ALEBA (financial sector trade union)
Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers)
CEP (professional sector chamber)
CGFP (trade union representing civil service)
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce)
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers)
FEDIL (federation of industrialists)
Greenpeace (environment protection)
LCGP (center-right trade union)
Mouvement Ecologique (environment protection)
OGBL (center-left trade union)

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Louis WOLZFELD
Chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
Consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Robert MANDELL
Embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
Mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
Telephone: [352] 46-01-23
FAX: [352] 46-14-01

National symbol(s):
lion

National anthem:
Name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)

Lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

Economy

Economy - overview:
This small, stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 27% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings, but Luxembourg has lost some of its advantages as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 40% of its labor force. Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic crisis that began in late 2008, but unemployment has trended below the EU average. Following strong expansion from 2004 to 2007, Luxembourg's economy contracted 3.6% in 2009, but rebounded in 2010-11 before slowing again in 2012. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world, and is the highest in the euro zone. Turmoil in the world financial markets and lower global demand during 2008-09 prompted the government to inject capital into the banking sector and implement stimulus measures to boost the economy. Government stimulus measures and support for the banking sector, however, led to a 5% government budget deficit in 2009. Nevertheless, the deficit was cut to 1.1% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012. Even during the financial crisis and recovery, Luxembourg retained the highest current account surplus as a share of GDP in the euro zone, owing largely to their strength in financial services. Public debt remains among the lowest of the region although it has more than doubled since 2007 as percentage of GDP. Luxembourg's economy, while stabile, grew slowly in 2012 due to ongoing weak growth in the euro area. Authorities have strengthened supervision of domestic banks because of their exposure to the activities of foreign banks.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$42.92 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100
$42.87 billion (2011 est.)
$42.17 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$56.74 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180
1.7% (2011 est.)
2.9% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$81,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 5
$82,500 (2011 est.)
$83,100 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 31%
Government consumption: 16.8%
Investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 170.5%
Imports of goods and services: -138.3%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 0.4%
Industry: 13.6%
Services: 86% (2007 est.)

Agriculture - products:
grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products

Industries:
banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
6.2% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Labor force:
208,200
Country comparison to the world: 168
note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2012 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 2.2%
Industry: 17.2%
Services: 80.6% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:
6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58
5.7% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.5%
Highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Budget:
Revenues: $23.78 billion
Expenditures: $24.43 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
41.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Public debt:
19% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129
18.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
3.4% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 128
1.75% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Stock of narrow money:
$90.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37
$90.24 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$229.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Stock of domestic credit:
$97.74 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51
$95.08 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$67.63 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$101.1 billion (31 December 2010)
$105.6 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
$500 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46
$3.033 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$13.2 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83
$19.22 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners:
Germany 21.6%, France 15.5%, Belgium 14.5%, UK 5.8%, Italy 5.6%, Switzerland 4.7% (2012)

Imports:
$23.29 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$26.54 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

Imports - partners:
Belgium 30.9%, Germany 23.4%, France 10.4%, US 8.2%, China 7.2%, Netherlands 5.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$991 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137
$1.014 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.643 trillion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 7
$2.084 trillion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
2.49 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Electricity - consumption:
5.973 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity - exports:
3.216 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - imports:
7.28 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.702 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
28.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 157

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
61,380 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Refined petroleum products - exports:
686.3 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Refined petroleum products - imports:
51,930 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156

Natural gas - consumption:
1.183 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Natural gas - imports:
1.183 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
10.8 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
279,100 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Telephones - mobile cellular:
765,000 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 159

Telephone system:
General assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
Domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
International: country code - 352 (2010)

Broadcast media:
Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services to pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2008)

Internet country code:
.lu

Internet hosts:
250,900 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Internet users:
424,500 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Transportation

Airports:
2 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
Over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Heliports:
1 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 275 km
Country comparison to the world: 123
Standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 5,227 km
Country comparison to the world: 152
Paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways:
37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Merchant marine:
Total: 49
Country comparison to the world: 71
By type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 20, container 10, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 12
Foreign-owned: 48 (Belgium 11, Denmark 1, France 15, Germany 9, Japan 3, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1, UK 5)
Registered in other countries: 18 (Italy 14, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Mertert

Military

Military branches:
Luxembourg Army (L'Armee Luxembourgeoises) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 118,665
Females age 16-49: 117,456 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 97,290
Females age 16-49: 96,361 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 3,263
Female: 3,084 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 177 (2012)

Flag of Luxembourg



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)