Introduction

Europe :: Moldova

Background:
Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the separatist region of Transnistria, composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizeable ethnic Moldovan minority. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president and, by doing so, put into place a permanent government. Four Moldovan opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), iterations of which have acted as Moldova's governing coalitions since. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty between 2009 and early 2012, holding three general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AEI-coalition consisting of three of the four original AEI parties formed a government, and in March 2012 was finally able to elect an independent as president. As of late May 2013, the ruling coalition - comprised of two of the original AEI parties and a splinter group from a third - is called the Pro-European Coalition. In November 2013, the Moldovan Government initialed an Association Agreement with the European Union (EU), advancing the coalition's policy priority of EU integration.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 33,851 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 140
Land: 32,891 sq km
Water: 960 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
Total: 1,390 km
Border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 940 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain:
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
Highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources:
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone

Land use:
Arable land: 53.47%
Permanent crops: 8.77%
Other: 37.75% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2,283 sq km (2011)

Total renewable water resources:
11.65 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 1.07 cu km/yr (14%/83%/4%)
Per capita: 290 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:
landslides

Environment - current issues:
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Moldovan(s)
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups:
Moldovan 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Romanian 2.2%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1%, unspecified 0.4%
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region (2004 est.)

Languages:
Moldovan 58.8% (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Romanian 16.4%, Russian 16%, Ukrainian 3.8%, Gagauz 3.1% (a Turkish language), Bulgarian 1.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.4%
note: percentages represent lanugage usually spoken (2004 est.)

Religions:
Orthodox 93.3%, Baptist 1%, other Christian 1.2%, other 0.9%, atheist 0.4%, none 1%, unspecified 2.2% (2004 est.)

Population:
3,583,288 (July 2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.7% (male 326,968/female 306,948)
15-24 years: 14.2% (male 262,559/female 246,283)
25-54 years: 43.9% (male 785,392/female 786,421)
55-64 years: 13.1% (male 214,899/female 255,046)
65 years and over: 10.7% (male 151,629/female 247,143) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 39.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 23.2 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 16.1 %
Potential support ratio: 6.2 (2014 est.)

Median age:
Total: 35.7 years
Male: 33.9 years
Female: 37.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-1.02% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 231

Birth rate:
12.21 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Death rate:
12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Net migration rate:
-9.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215

Urbanization:
Urban population: 47.7% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 0.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
CHISINAU (capital) 677,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.7 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
41 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 12.93 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 122
Male: 14.82 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 10.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 70.12 years
Country comparison to the world: 152
Male: 66.25 years
Female: 74.24 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.56 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
67.8% (2005)

Health expenditures:
11.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 11

Physicians density:
3.64 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:
6.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 96.5% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 3.5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 89.2% of population
rural: 84.4% of population
total: 86.7% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 10.8% of population
rural: 15.6% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
18,700 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,300 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
21.2% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.2% (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Education expenditures:
8.4% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99.5%
Female: 98.5% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 12 years (2012)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 72,364
Percentage: 16 % (2009 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 13.1%
Country comparison to the world: 95
Male: 12.8%
Female: 13.4% (2012)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: Moldova
Former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyev)
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
Raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
Municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
Autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
Territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)

Independence:
27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution:
previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; amended 2003 (2011)

Legal system:
civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Nicolae TIMOFTI (since 23 March 2012)
Head of government: Prime Minister Iurie LEANCA (since 25 April 2013; acting until 30 May 2013, sworn in on 31 May 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet selected by president with approval of Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; the prime minister and Cabinet received a vote of confidence on 30 May 2013
Election results: Nicolae TIMOFTI elected president; parliamentary votes - 62 of 101 votes Iurie LEANCA designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 58 of 101

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 28 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2014); note - this was the third parliamentary election in less than two years; the earlier parliaments (elected 5 April 2009 and 29 July 2009) were dissolved after they could not elect a presidential candidate with the necessary three-fifths majority
Election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 39.3%, PLDM 29.4%, PD 12.7%, PL 10%, other 8.6%; seats by party - PCRM 42, PLDM 32, PD 15, PL 12; note - in November of 2011, 3 legislators defected from the Communist Party (PCRM) and voted with the PLDM, PD, and PL governing coalition - termed the Alliance for European Integration (AEI) - to reach a 62-seat majority sufficient to elect a new president; the 3 former PCRM legislators are now aligned with the Party of Socialists, and in 2012 an additional 5 legislators defected from the PCRM; 1 PLDM legislator also defected and is independent

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judges, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges)
note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government.
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Represented in Parliament:
Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU]
Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladimir FILAT]
Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]
Liberal Reformers Party or PLR [Ion HADARCA]
Pro-European Coalition (coalition of the PD, PLDM, and PLR)

Not represented in Parliament:
Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]
Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]
Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]
European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA]
For Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU]
Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]
Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]
Party of Socialists or PSRM [Igor DODON]
Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]
Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC]
Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]
Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]
Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]
United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Igor MUNTEANU (since 7 September 2010)
Chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2624

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador William H. MOSER (since 6 September 2011)
Embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044

National symbol(s):
aurochs (a type of wild cattle)

National anthem:
Name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)

Lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
note: adopted 1994

Economy

Economy - overview:
Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and good farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.6 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a growing $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. In August 2013, work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies. The government's goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2013 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. Moldova is poised to sign an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU during fall 2014, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, growth has been hampered by high prices for Russian natural gas, a Russian import ban on Moldovan wine, increased foreign scrutiny of Moldovan agricultural products, and by Moldova’s large external debt. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$13.25 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149
$12.16 billion (2012 est.)
$12.26 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$7.932 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
8.9% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8
-0.7% (2012 est.)
6.8% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,800 (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172
$3,500 (2012 est.)
$3,500 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
16.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98
16.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
11.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 92.9%
Government consumption: 20.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
Investment in inventories: 1.7%
Exports of goods and services: 44.1%
Imports of goods and services: -81.9%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 13.8%
Industry: 19.9%
Services: 66.2% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine

Industries:
sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
6.8% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Labor force:
1.206 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 26.4%
Industry: 13.2%
Services: 60.4% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
5.8% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
5.6% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
21.9% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.3%
Highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 100
33.2 (2003)

Budget:
Revenues: $2.931 billion
Expenditures: $3.071 billion
note: National Public Budget (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
37% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Public debt:
16.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141
17.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.6% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151
4.6% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
3.5% (31 December 2013)
Country comparison to the world: 79
4.5% (31 December 2012)
note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
12.26% (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56
13.34% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.154 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124
$1.701 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$4.974 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 129
$4.088 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.978 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124
$2.908 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$65.28 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110
$51.46 million (31 December 2012)
$20.71 million

Current account balance:
-$507.7 million (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
-$495.3 million (2012 est.)

Exports:
$2.399 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139
$2.162 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery

Exports - partners:
Russia 26.3%, Romania 17.2%, Italy 7.7%, Ukraine 5.9%, Turkey 5.3%, Germany 4.7%, GB 4.4% (2012 est.)

Imports:
$5.493 billion (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125
$5.213 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles

Imports - partners:
Russia 14.3%, Romania 13.1%, Ukraine 12%, China 8.7%, Germany 7.2%, Turkey 6.9%, Italy 6.3% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.814 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
$2.513 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$6.218 billion (30 September, 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113
$5.984 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$3.448 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94
$3.262 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$108.2 million (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 86
$88.42 million (31 December 2011)

Exchange rates:
Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
12.592 (2013 est.)
12.112 (2012 est.)
12.369 (2010 est.)
11.11 (2009)
10.326 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
932 million kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Electricity - consumption:
4.211 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Electricity - imports:
3.297 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
439,900 kW
Country comparison to the world: 143
note: excludes Transnistria (2013 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
96.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
3.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 198

Crude oil - production:
221 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Crude oil - proved reserves:
7,330 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Refined petroleum products - production:
321 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
15,320 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Refined petroleum products - exports:
552 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Refined petroleum products - imports:
15,280 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Natural gas - consumption:
1.095 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Natural gas - imports:
1.095 billion cu m
Country comparison to the world: 56
note: excludes Transnistria (2012 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6.467 million Mt (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.206 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.08 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Telephone system:
General assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
Domestic: multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 100 per 100 persons
International: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 TV and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)

Internet country code:
.md

Internet hosts:
711,564 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Internet users:
1.333 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Transportation

Airports:
7 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 5
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 1,906 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 1,190 km
Country comparison to the world: 86
Broad gauge: 1,176 km 1.520-m gauge
Standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 9,352 km
Country comparison to the world: 136
Paved: 8,835 km
Unpaved: 517 km (2012)

Waterways:
558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Merchant marine:
Total: 121
Country comparison to the world: 45
By type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1
Foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)

Military

Military branches:
National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit), Logistics Command (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,143,440
Females age 16-49: 1,156,958 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 875,224
Females age 16-49: 969,903 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 28,213
Female: 26,614 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.3% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 128
0.3% of GDP (2011)
0.3% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 1,998 (2012)

Illicit drugs:
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

Flag of Moldova



Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms
note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Moldova ID - 563143 PB - The World Factbook 2014 UR - https://relief.unboundmedicine.com/relief/view/The-World-Factbook-2014/563143/all/Moldova ER -