Introduction

East & Southeast Asia :: Mongolia

Background:
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office. In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s. Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name. In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.

Geography

Location:
Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:
Asia

Area:
Total: 1,564,116 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 19
Land: 1,553,556 sq km
Water: 10,560 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
Total: 8,220 km
Border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
Highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron

Land use:
Arable land: 0.39%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 99.61% (2011)

Irrigated land:
843 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
34.8 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.55 cu km/yr (13%/43%/44%)
Per capita: 196.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions

Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Mongolian(s)
Adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups:
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)

Languages:
Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)

Religions:
Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)

Population:
3,226,516 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.9% (male 442,850/female 425,017)
15-24 years: 19% (male 311,460/female 302,286)
25-54 years: 44.5% (male 716,893/female 719,508)
55-64 years: 5.5% (male 85,545/female 93,234)
65 years and over: 4% (male 56,241/female 73,482) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 45.1 %
Youth dependency ratio: 39.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 %
Potential support ratio: 18.1 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 26.9 years
Male: 26.5 years
Female: 27.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.44% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Birth rate:
20.34 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Death rate:
5.98 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Urbanization:
Urban population: 68.5% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
ULAANBAATAR (capital) 949,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 34.78 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 65
Male: 37.66 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 31.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 68.95 years
Country comparison to the world: 157
Male: 66.46 years
Female: 71.56 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
55% (2010)

Health expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Physicians density:
2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
5.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 82% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 18% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 64% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 51% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 36% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 49% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
14.4% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
5.3% (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.4%
Male: 96.8%
Female: 97.9% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 106,203
Percentage: 18 % (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 20%
Country comparison to the world: 57
Male: 19.5%
Female: 20.7% (2003)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Mongolia
Local long form: none
Local short form: Mongol Uls
Former: Outer Mongolia

Government type:
parliamentary

Capital:
Name: Ulaanbaatar
Geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
Time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence:
11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday:
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution:
13 January 1992

Legal system:
civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
Head of government: Prime Minister Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Dendev TERBISHDAGVA (since 20 August 2012)
Cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
Elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, leaders of the majority party or a majority coalition usually elect the prime minister of the State Great Hural
Election results: in elections in June 2013, Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 50.2%, Badmaanyambuu BAT-ERDENE 42%, Natsag UDVAL 6.5%, others 1.3%

Legislative branch:
unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 33, MPP 25, Justice Coalition 11, others 5, vacant 2

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 16 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Heral upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
Subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts (established in 2004)

Political parties and leaders:
Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Dangaasuren EHKHBAT]
Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]
Justice Coalition (is made up of MPRP and MNDP)
Mongolian Natinal Democratic party or MNDP [ENKHSAIKHAN Mendsaikhan]
Mongolian People's Party or MPP [O. ENKHTUVSHIN]
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Other: human rights groups; women's groups

International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL
Chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
Telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Piper Anne Wind CAMPBELL
Embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar, 14171 Mongolia
Mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar-14192
Telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016

National symbol(s):
soyombo emblem

National anthem:
Name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
Lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; the anthem's lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions

Economy

Economy - overview:
Mongolia's extensive mineral deposits and attendant growth in mining-sector activities have transformed Mongolia's economy, which traditionally has been dependent on herding and agriculture. Mongolia's copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten deposits, among others, have attracted foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth, because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit hard by the global financial crisis. Slower global economic growth hurt the country's exports, notably copper, and slashed government revenues. As a result, Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the International Monetary Fund reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and the country has largely emerged from the crisis with better regulations and closer supervision. The banking sector strengthened but weaknesses remain. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi mine, considered to be among the world's largest untapped copper deposits. Recent calls by nationalist politicians to renegotiate the investment agreement, however, have called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Negotiations to develop the massive Tavan Tolgoi coal field face similar obstacles. The economy grew by 6.4% in 2010, 17.5% in 2011, and by more than 12.3% in 2012, largely on the strength of commodity exports to nearby countries and high government spending domestically. Mongolia's economy, however, faces near-term economic risks from the government's loose fiscal policies, which are contributing to high inflation, and uncertainties in foreign demand for Mongolian exports. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives more than 90% of Mongolia's exports. Mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Due to severe winter weather in 2009-10, Mongolia lost 22% of its total livestock, and meat prices doubled. Inflation remained higher than 10% for much of 2010-12, due in part to higher food and fuel prices. The economic slowdown in China during 2011-2012 resulted in fewer Mongolian exports, a widened trade gap, and decreased government revenues, putting pressure on Mongolian fiscal policy. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$15.44 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141
$13.75 billion (2011 est.)
$11.7 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.26 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
12.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 3
17.5% (2011 est.)
6.4% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,500 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154
$4,900 (2011 est.)
$4,200 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 51.1%
Government consumption: 14.5%
Investment in fixed capital: 48.3%
Investment in inventories: 13.9%
Exports of goods and services: 58.6%
Imports of goods and services: -86.4%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 29.9%
Services: 56.1% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Industries:
construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:
9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Labor force:
1.037 million (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 33%
Industry: 10.6%
Services: 56.4% (2011)

Unemployment rate:
9% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
13% (2010)

Population below poverty line:
29.8% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3%
Highest 10%: 28.4% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.5 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 82
32.8 (2002)

Budget:
Revenues: $3.228 billion
Expenditures: $4.091 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
31.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-8.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211
9.5% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
13.25% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 15
12.25% (31 December 2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
18.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38
15.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.318 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140
$1.247 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$5.456 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127
$4.592 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$5.007 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117
$4.04 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.29 billion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 100
$1.579 billion (31 December 2011)
$1.093 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
-$2.354 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143
-$1.781 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$4.385 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116
$4.816 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil

Exports - partners:
China 88.9%, Canada 4.1% (2012)

Imports:
$6.739 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113
$6.598 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent

Imports - partners:
China 37.6%, Russia 25.7%, US 9.4%, South Korea 6.1%, Japan 4.9% (2012)

Debt - external:
$3.423 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131
$2.564 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$4.62 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87
$4.715 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$50 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
$94.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
1,357.6 (2012 est.)
1,265.5 (2011 est.)
1,357.1 (2010 est.)
1,442.8 (2009)
1,170 (2007)

Energy

Electricity - production:
4.48 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Electricity - consumption:
4.217 billion kWh (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity - imports:
262.9 million kWh (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
833,200 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Crude oil - production:
6,983 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Crude oil - exports:
5,260 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Crude oil - proved reserves:
NA bbl

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
21,610 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Refined petroleum products - imports:
15,730 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Natural gas - imports:
11,790 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
9.436 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
187,600 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.942 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 129

Telephone system:
General assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
Domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
International: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2011)

Broadcast media:
following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)

Internet country code:
.mn

Internet hosts:
20,084 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Internet users:
330,000 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Transportation

Airports:
44 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 15
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 29
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
Under 914 m:
1 (2013)

Heliports:
1 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 1,908 km
Country comparison to the world: 73
Broad gauge: 1,908 km 1.520-m gauge
note: the railway is 50 percent owned by the Russian State Railway (2010)

Roadways:
Total: 49,249 km
Country comparison to the world: 80
Paved: 3,015 km
Unpaved: 46,234 km (2010)

Waterways:
580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Merchant marine:
Total: 57
Country comparison to the world: 68
By type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1
Foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)

Military

Military branches:
Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army (includes Mongolian Air and Air Defense, which is to become a separate service in 2015); there is no navy (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 898,546
Females age 16-49: 891,192 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 726,199
Females age 16-49: 756,628 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 30,829
Female: 29,648 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 220 (2012)

Flag of Mongolia



Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity