Introduction

Africa :: Mali

Background:
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president.

Geography

Location:
interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger

Geographic coordinates:
17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 1,240,192 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 24
Land: 1,220,190 sq km
Water: 20,002 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
Total: 7,243 km
Border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)

Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
Highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use:
Arable land: 5.53%
Permanent crops: 0.1%
Other: 94.37% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2,358 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
100 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
Per capita: 545.4 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Malian(s)
Adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Languages:
French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, unspecified 0.6%, other 8.5%

Religions:
Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)

Population:
15,968,882 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.7% (male 3,824,877/female 3,794,196)
15-24 years: 19% (male 1,439,032/female 1,587,072)
25-54 years: 26.6% (male 1,980,766/female 2,270,676)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 297,365/female 295,495)
65 years and over: 3% (male 240,681/female 238,722) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 100.7 %
Youth dependency ratio: 95.1 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %
Potential support ratio: 17.9 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 16 years
Male: 15.4 years
Female: 16.6 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
3.01% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

Birth rate:
46.06 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 2

Death rate:
13.55 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Net migration rate:
-2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Urbanization:
Urban population: 34.9% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 4.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BAMAKO (capital) 1.628 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.6 (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
540 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 17

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 106.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 2
Male: 113.23 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 99.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 54.55 years
Country comparison to the world: 204
Male: 52.75 years
Female: 56.41 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 2

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
8.2% (2006)

Health expenditures:
5% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 141

Physicians density:
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 64% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 35% of population
rural: 14% of population
total: 22% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 65% of population
rural: 86% of population
total: 78% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
76,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,400 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.3% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
27.9% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Education expenditures:
4.8% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 33.4%
Male: 43.1%
Female: 24.6% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 8 years
Male: 8 years
Female: 7 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 1,485,027
Percentage: 36 % (2010 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali
Conventional short form: Mali
Local long form: Republique de Mali
Local short form: Mali
Former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Bamako
Geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)

Independence:
22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)

Constitution:
adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system:
civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
Head of government: Prime Minister Oumar Tatum LY (since 5 September 2013)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the election scheduled for 29 April 2012 and delayed following the March 2012 coup took place 28 July 2013 and a runoff election was held on 11 August 2013; prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE 22.4%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (July 2012 scheduled election delayed after the military coup)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
Subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)

Political parties and leaders:
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]
Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]
Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region)
Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO]
Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]
Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]
Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]
Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]
Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]
Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA
Chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD
Embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
Mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
Telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479

National anthem:
Name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
Lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

Economy

Economy - overview:
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010, but the global recession and a military coup caused a decline in output in 2012. The interim government slashed public spending in the context of a declining state of security and declining international aid.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$18.28 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
$18.5 billion (2011 est.)
$18.01 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.32 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201
2.7% (2011 est.)
5.8% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,100 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 214
$1,200 (2011 est.)
$1,200 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
19.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77
12.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
8.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 67.6%
Government consumption: 12.8%
Investment in fixed capital: 26.4%
Investment in inventories: 0.6%
Exports of goods and services: 27.1%
Imports of goods and services: -34.5%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 36.9%
Industry: 23.4%
Services: 39.7% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries:
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
3.241 million (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 80%
Industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
30% (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Population below poverty line:
36.1% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.5%
Highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.1 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 59
50.5 (1994)

Budget:
Revenues: $1.821 billion
Expenditures: $1.948 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
17.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Public debt:
25.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122
25.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152
2.9% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
16% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.3% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100
9% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.583 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119
$2.156 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$3.401 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141
$2.929 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.102 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
$1.669 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Current account balance:
-$1.421 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123
-$1.301 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$2.755 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132
$2.373 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
cotton, gold, livestock

Exports - partners:
China 53.7%, Malaysia 11.2%, Indonesia 5.4%, India 4.1% (2012)

Imports:
$2.793 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148
$2.78 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners:
France 10.9%, Senegal 9.7%, China 8.4%, Cote dIvoire 8% (2012)

Debt - external:
$2.789 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140
$2.693 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.545 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92
$2.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$540.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80
$247.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
510.53 (2012 est.)
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
520 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Electricity - consumption:
483.6 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
304,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
48.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
51.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 205

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
4,994 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Refined petroleum products - imports:
4,568 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 159

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
893,700 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
104,700 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.822 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Telephone system:
General assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
Domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to about 70 per 100 persons
International: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:
national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:
.ml

Internet hosts:
437 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Internet users:
249,800 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Transportation

Airports:
25 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 129

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 8
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
Under 914 m:
5 (2013)

Heliports:
2 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 593 km
Country comparison to the world: 109
Narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 18,912 km
Country comparison to the world: 114
Paved: 3,597 km
Unpaved: 15,315 km (2004)

Waterways:
1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Ports and terminals:
Koulikoro

Military

Military branches:
Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2008)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,848,412
Females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,825,779
Females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 158,031
Female: 159,733 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 12,436 (Mauritania) (2012)
IDPs: 301,027 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2013)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children; reports indicate that non-governmental armed groups operating in northern Mali recruited children as combatants, cooks, porters, guards, spies, and sex slaves
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; although the government enacted a comprehensive anti-trafficking law in 2012, it did not demonstrate evidence of overall increasing efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year; the government has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, has not provided any direct services to victims, and has not made any tangible prevention efforts; the government continues to cite a lack of personnel and resources as reasons for its inability to adequately identify and rescue child victims of forced labor in the mining industry (2013)

Flag of Mali



Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea