Europe :: Monaco

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The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.


Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references:

Total: 2 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 250
Land: 2 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
Total: 6 km
Border countries: France 6 km

4.1 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources:

Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 1%
Other: 99% (urban area) (2011)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

People and Society

Noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
Adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Country comparison to the world: 218
note: immigrants make up more than 60% of the total population, according to UN data (2013) (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 11.7% (male 1,828/female 1,742)
15-24 years: 9.2% (male 1,445/female 1,371)
25-54 years: 35.1% (male 5,332/female 5,363)
55-64 years: 14.5% (male 2,223/female 2,203)
65 years and over: 28.7% (male 4,020/female 4,981) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Median age:
Total: 51.1 years
Male: 50 years
Female: 52.3 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.06% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Birth rate:
6.72 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 224

Death rate:
9.01 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Net migration rate:
2.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 0.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 1.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 224
Male: 2.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 1.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 89.57 years
Country comparison to the world: 1
Male: 85.66 years
Female: 93.64 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.52 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Health expenditures:
4.3% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 157

Physicians density:
7.06 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:
16.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Education expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 169

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 6.9%
Country comparison to the world: 130
Male: 6.6%
Female: 7.4% (2000)


Country name:
Conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
Conventional short form: Monaco
Local long form: Principaute de Monaco
Local short form: Monaco

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Name: Monaco
Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco

1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)

National holiday:
National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962; amended 2002 (2013)

Legal system:
civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
Head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)
Cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 10 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Horizon Monaco 50.3%, Union Monegasque 39%, Renaissance 10.7%; seats by party - Horizon Monaco 20, Union Monegasque 3, Renaissance 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Political parties and leaders:
Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Renaissance [SBM (public corporation)]
Union Monegasque [Stephane VALERI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:
CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)
Chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

National anthem:
Name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)

Lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT
note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions


Economy - overview:
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to a downturn in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco's GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis precipitated a sharp drop in tourism and retail activity and home sales. A modest recovery ensued in 2010, but Monaco's economic prospects remain uncertain, and tied to future euro-zone growth. Weak economic growth also has deteriorated public finances as the principality recorded budget deficits in 2011-12. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$6.213 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165
$5.748 billion (2011 est.)
$5.47 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$5.748 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176
2.5% (2010 est.)
-11.5% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$85,500 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 5

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 0%
Industry: 10%
Services: 90% (2011)

Agriculture - products:

banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate:

Labor force:
Country comparison to the world: 191
note: includes all foreign workers (2012 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 0%
Industry: 16.1%
Services: 83.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
2% (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Revenues: $1.044 billion
Expenditures: $1.111 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
18.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$1.115 billion (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 156
$684.9 million (2010)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Exports - partners:
Europe 73.2%, Africa 14.6%, America 5.2%, Asia 4.9% (2013 est.)

$1.162 billion (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 177
$850.2 million (2010)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Imports - partners:
Europe 70.4%, Asia 20.8%, America 4.4%, Africa 4.1% (2013 est.)

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
44,500 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Telephones - mobile cellular:
33,200 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 207

Telephone system:
General assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
Domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 200 per 100 persons
International: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2011)

Broadcast media:
TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco (2012)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
26,009 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Internet users:
23,000 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 191


1 (2012)

Total: 77 km
Country comparison to the world: 217
Paved: 77 km (2010)

Merchant marine:
Registered in other countries: 64 (Bahamas 8, Bermuda 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 30, Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Monaco


Military branches:
no regular military forces; Directorate of Public Security (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 5,749 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 4,629
Females age 16-49: 4,597 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 153
Female: 141 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

Flag of Monaco

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Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red