Introduction

Africa :: Morocco

Background:
In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. The Alaouite dynasty, to which the current Moroccan royal family belongs, dates from the 17th century. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Sultan MOHAMMED V, the current monarch's grandfather, organized the new state as a constitutional monarchy and in 1957 assumed the title of king. Although Morocco is not the UN-recognized Administering Power for the Western Sahara, it exercises de facto administrative control there. The UN assists with direct negotiations between Morocco and the Polisario Front, but the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature, which first met in 1997. Morocco enjoys a moderately free press, but the government has taken action against journalists who they perceive to be challenging the monarchy, Islam, or the status of Western Sahara. Influenced by protests elsewhere in the region, in February 2011 thousands of Moroccans began weekly rallies in multiple cities across the country to demand greater democracy and end to government corruption. Overall the response of Moroccan security forces was subdued compared to the violence elsewhere in the region. King MOHAMMED VI responded quickly with a reform program that included a new constitution and early elections. The constitution was passed by popular referendum in July 2011; some new powers were extended to parliament and the prime minister, but ultimate authority remains in the hands of the monarch. In early elections in November 2012, the Justice and Development Party - a moderate Islamist party, won the largest number of seats, becoming the first Islamist party to lead the Moroccan Government. In January 2012, Morocco assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates:
32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 446,550 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 58
Land: 446,300 sq km
Water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,017.9 km
Border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline:
1,835 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain:
northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
Highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Land use:
Arable land: 17.79%
Permanent crops: 2.6%
Other: 79.61% (2011)

Irrigated land:
14,850 sq km (2004)

Total renewable water resources:
29 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 12.61 cu km/yr (12%/4%/84%)
Per capita: 428.1 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Moroccan(s)
Adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups:
Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%

Languages:
Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)

Religions:
Muslim 99% (official), Christian 1%, Jewish about 6,000

Population:
32,649,130 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.1% (male 4,489,297/female 4,353,921)
15-24 years: 18% (male 2,918,765/female 2,951,131)
25-54 years: 41.7% (male 6,590,575/female 7,033,013)
55-64 years: 7% (male 1,135,921/female 1,135,747)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 919,236/female 1,121,524) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 48.9 %
Youth dependency ratio: 41.5 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %
Potential support ratio: 13.5 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 27.7 years
Male: 27.1 years
Female: 28.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.04% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Birth rate:
18.73 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Death rate:
4.78 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Net migration rate:
-3.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 185

Urbanization:
Urban population: 57% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
Casablanca 3.245 million; RABAT (capital) 1.77 million; Fes 1.044 million; Marrakech 909,000; Tangier 768,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
25.4 (2004 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 25.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 75
Male: 30.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 20.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 76.31 years
Country comparison to the world: 79
Male: 73.25 years
Female: 79.53 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.17 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
67.4% (2011)

Health expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 129

Physicians density:
0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
1.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 61% of population
total: 83% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 39% of population
total: 17% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 83% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 70% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 17% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 30% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
26,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,200 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
16.4% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.1% (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Education expenditures:
5.4% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 67.1%
Male: 76.1%
Female: 57.6% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 500,960
Percentage: 8 % (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 17.9%
Country comparison to the world: 69
Male: 18.1%
Female: 17.4% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
Conventional short form: Morocco
Local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
Local short form: Al Maghrib

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
Name: Rabat
Geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in September

Administrative divisions:
15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco also claims Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, another region that falls entirely within Western Sahara

Independence:
2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday:
Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

Constitution:
10 March 1972; revised 4 September 1992, amended September 1996; revised constitution approved by referendum 1 July 2011 referendum

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
Head of government: Prime Minister Abdelillah BENKIRANE (since 29 November 2011)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister as well as Minister Delegates to each ministry appoined by the Palace
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Counsilors (or upper house) (270 seats - to be reduced to a maximum of 120; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members are elected every three years) and Chamber of Representatives (or lower house) (395 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held on 3 October 2009 (next to be held in mid-2013); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 25 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PJD 107, PI 60, RNI 52, PAM 47, USFP 39, MP 32, UC 23, PPS 18, other 17

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of 5-judge panels organized into civil, family matters, commercial, administrative, social, and criminal sections)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary
Subordinate courts: courts of appeal; regional and sadad courts (for religious, civil and administrative, and penal adjudication)

Political parties and leaders:
Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]
Al Ahd (The Covenant) Party [Najib EL OUAZZANI]
Alliance des Libert'es (Alliance of Liberty) or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]
An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]
Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Mustapha BAKKOURY, secretary general]
Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]
Citizens' Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]
Citizenship and Development Initiative or ICD [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohammed ABIED]
Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]
Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Touhami EL KHIARI]
Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]
Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]
Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]
Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]
Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Hamid CHABAT]
Party of Justice and Development or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]
Labor Party or LP [Abdelkrim BENATIK]
Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]
National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]
National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]
National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]
National Rally of Independents or RNI [Mustapha EL MANSOURI]
National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]
Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]
Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]
Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]
Renaissance and Virtue Party or PRV [Mohamed KHALIDI]
Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]
Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]
Socialist Democratic Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]
Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]
Unified Socialist Left Party or PGSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]

International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammed Rachad BOUHLAL
Chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979
FAX: [1] (202) 462-7643
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Matthew LUSSENHOP
Embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat
Mailing address: Unit 9400, Box 021, DPO AE 09718
Telephone: [212] (537) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (537) 76 56 61
Consulate(s) general: Casablanca

National symbol(s):
pentacle symbol; lion

National anthem:
Name: "Hymne Cherifien" (Hymn of the Sharif)

Lyrics/music: Ali Squalli HOUSSAINI/Leo MORGAN
note: music adopted 1956, lyrics adopted 1970

Economy

Economy - overview:
Morocco has capitalized on its proximity to Europe and relatively low labor costs to build a diverse, open, market-oriented economy. In the 1980s Morocco was a heavily indebted country before pursuing austerity measures and pro-market reforms, overseen by the IMF. Since taking the throne in 1999, King MOHAMMED VI has presided over a stable economy marked by steady growth, low inflation, and gradually falling unemployment, although a poor harvest and economic difficulties in Europe contributed to an economic slowdown in 2012. Industrial development strategies and infrastructure improvements - most visibly illustrated by a new port and free trade zone near Tangier - are improving Morocco's competitiveness. Morocco also seeks to expand its renewable energy capacity with a goal of making renewable 40% of electricity output by 2020. Key sectors of the economy include agriculture, tourism, phosphates, textiles, apparel, and subcomponents. To boost exports, Morocco entered into a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the United States in 2006 and an Advanced Status agreement with the European Union in 2008. Despite Morocco's economic progress, the country suffers from high unemployment, poverty, and illiteracy, particularly in rural areas. In 2011 and 2012, high prices on fuel - which is subsidized and almost entirely imported - strained the government''s budget and widened the country''s current account deficit. Key economic challenges for Morocco include fighting corruption and reforming the education system, the judiciary, and the government''s costly subsidy program.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$174 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
$169 billion (2011 est.)
$161 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$97.53 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110
5% (2011 est.)
3.6% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,400 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155
$5,300 (2011 est.)
$5,100 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
26.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37
27.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
30.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 59.7%
Government consumption: 19.2%
Investment in fixed capital: 31.4%
Investment in inventories: 3.9%
Exports of goods and services: 36.2%
Imports of goods and services: -50.4%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 15.1%
Industry: 31.7%
Services: 53.2% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables, olives; livestock; wine

Industries:
phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120

Labor force:
11.53 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 44.6%
Industry: 19.8%
Services: 35.5% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:
9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
8.9% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
15% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.7%
Highest 10%: 33.2% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.9 (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 55
39.5 (1999 est.)

Budget:
Revenues: $25.33 billion
Expenditures: $33.29 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
26% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-8.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Public debt:
71.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37
64.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19
0.9% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
3.31% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.3% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 137
6.32% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$72.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$68.41 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$107.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53
$102.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$112.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 50
$104 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$60.09 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$69.15 billion (31 December 2010)
$62.91 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$8.508 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174
-$8.337 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$21.8 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73
$21.51 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
clothing and textiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish

Exports - partners:
France 21%, Spain 17.3%, Brazil 5.4%, India 4.9%, US 4.6% (2012)

Imports:
$42.45 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59
$40.96 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics

Imports - partners:
Spain 13.1%, France 12.1%, China 6.9%, US 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, Italy 5.1%, Russia 5%, Germany 4.9% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$17.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61
$20.64 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$33.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
$29.05 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$49.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54
$47.78 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.353 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
$1.603 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
8.6087 (2012 est.)
8.0899 (2011 est.)
8.4172 (2010 est.)
8.0571 (2009)
7.526 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
20.09 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - consumption:
22.21 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Electricity - imports:
4.623 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
6.164 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
67.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
20.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
4.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Crude oil - production:
5,500 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152

Crude oil - imports:
95,460 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49

Crude oil - proved reserves:
100 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Refined petroleum products - production:
113,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
203,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Refined petroleum products - exports:
15,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Refined petroleum products - imports:
107,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Natural gas - production:
70 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Natural gas - consumption:
570 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 145

Natural gas - imports:
500 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.444 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
35.66 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.566 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Telephones - mobile cellular:
36.554 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Telephone system:
General assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensive
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 100 per 100 persons
International: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2011)

Broadcast media:
2 TV broadcast networks with state-run Radio-Television Marocaine (RTM) operating one network and the state partially owning the other; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite dish; 3 radio broadcast networks with RTM operating one; the government-owned network includes 10 regional radio channels in addition to its national service (2007)

Internet country code:
.ma

Internet hosts:
277,338 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Internet users:
13.213 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Transportation

Airports:
55 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 31
Over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 11
Under 914 m:
5 (2013)

Heliports:
1 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 944 km; oil 270 km; refined products 175 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 2,067 km
Country comparison to the world: 70
Standard gauge: 2,067 km 1.435-m gauge (1,022 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 58,256 km
Country comparison to the world: 76
Paved: 39,480 km (includes 866 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 18,776 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
Total: 26
Country comparison to the world: 88
By type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, container 6, passenger/cargo 14, roll on/roll off 2
Foreign-owned: 14 (France 3, Germany 1, Italy 1, Spain 9)
Registered in other countries: 4 (Gibraltar 4) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Casablanca, Jorf Lasfar, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier

Military

Military branches:
Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Royal Moroccan Navy (includes Coast Guard, Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawyiya al Malakiya Marakishiya; Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 8,252,682
Females age 16-49: 8,691,419 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 7,026,016
Females age 16-49: 7,377,045 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 300,327
Female: 298,366 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
4.8% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 18

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco is a dormant dispute

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Morocco is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Moroccan adults and children are exploited for forced labor and forced prostitution in the Middle East and Europe; some Moroccan girls recruited to work as maids experience conditions of forced labor, while some Moroccan boys are forced to work as apprentices in the artisan and construction industries and in mechanic shops; women and children from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia who voluntarily enter Morocco are subsequently coerced into prostitution or, less frequently, domestic service; women and children from Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Nigeria are also vulnerable to sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, forced labor in Morocco
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Morocco does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government does not demonstrate progress in investigating, prosecuting, convicting, and adequately punishing trafficking offenders and has failed to provide law enforcement data; it has not developed or employed systematic procedures to proactively identify trafficking victims among vulnerable groups, particularly the sub-Saharan migrant community, but has made some efforts to offer protective services to Moroccan women and child trafficking victims; Morocco continues to lack a single comprehensive anti-trafficking law (2013)

Illicit drugs:
one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis

Flag of Morocco



Flag description:
red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; the pentacle represents the five pillars of Islam and signifies the association between God and the nation; design dates to 1912