Introduction

Australia-Oceania :: Niue(self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Background:
Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, has caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to an estimated 1,229 in 2013) with substantial emigration to New Zealand 2,400 km to the southwest.

Geography

Location:
Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates:
19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references:
Oceania

Area:
Total: 260 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 213
Land: 260 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
64 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain:
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: unnamed elevation near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources:
fish, arable land

Land use:
Arable land: 3.85%
Permanent crops: 11.54%
Other: 84.62% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
typhoons

Environment - current issues:
increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note:
one of world's largest coral islands

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Niuean(s)
Adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups:
Niuen 78.2%, Pacific islander 10.2%, European 4.5%, mixed 3.9%, Asian 0.2%, unspecified 3% (2001 census)

Languages:
English (official), Niuean (a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan)

Religions:
Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 61.1%, Latter-Day Saints 8.8%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, other 8.4%, unspecified 8.7%, none 1.9% (2001 census)

Population:
1,229 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 236

Population growth rate:
-0.03% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Urbanization:
Urban population: 38% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: -1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
NA

Infant mortality rate:
Total: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

Total fertility rate:
NA

Health expenditures:
17.4% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 4

Physicians density:
4 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: NA
Total population: 95%
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 13 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 15 years (2005)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Niue
note: pronunciation falls between nyu-way and new-way, but not like new-wee
Former: Savage Island

Dependency status:
self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense; however, these responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue

Government type:
self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Alofi
Geographic coordinates: 19 01 S, 169 55 W
Time difference: UTC-11 (6 hours behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order

Independence:
19 October 1974 (Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand)

National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Constitution:
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system:
English common law

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Mark BLUMSKY (since September 2011)
Head of government: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008)
Cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and 3 ministers
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held on 16 May 2011 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results: Toke TALAGI reelected premier in Legislative Assembly vote; Toke TALAGI - 11, Togia SIONEHOLO - 8

Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)
Elections: last held on 7 May 2011 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - 20 independents

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and up to 3 judges); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) is the final appeal court beyond the Niue Court of Appeal
note - Niue is a participant in the Pacific Judicial Development Program; the program is designed to build governance and the rule of law in 15 Pacific island countries
Judge selection and term of office: Niue chief justice appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Cabinet and tendered by the premier; other judges appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the Cabinet and tendered by the chief justice and the minister of justice; judges serve until age 68
Subordinate courts: High Court

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Independents or AI
Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, FAO, IFAD, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

National anthem:
Name: "Ko e Iki he Lagi" (The Lord in Heaven)
Lyrics/music: unknown/unknown, prepared by Sioeli FUSIKATA
note: adopted 1974

Economy

Economy - overview:
The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and financial services, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses. Economic aid from New Zealand in FY08/09 was US$5.7 million. Niue suffered a devastating typhoon in January 2004, which decimated nascent economic programs. While in the process of rebuilding, Niue has been dependent on foreign aid.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$10.01 million (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 228

GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.01 million (2003)

GDP - real growth rate:
6.2% (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,800 (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 153

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 23.5%
Industry: 26.9%
Services: 49.5% (2003)

Agriculture - products:
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Industries:
handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
663 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 231

Labor force - by occupation:
Note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate:
12% (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $15.07 million
Expenditures: $16.33 million (FY04/05)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-12.6% of GDP (FY04/05)
Country comparison to the world: 212

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2005)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Exports:
$201,400 (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 219

Exports - commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts

Imports:
$9.038 million (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 222

Imports - commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs

Debt - external:
$418,000 (2002 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar -
1.2334 (2012)
1.263 (2011)
1.3874 (2010)
1.6002 (2009)
1.4151 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
3 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215

Electricity - consumption:
2.79 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 147

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
NA bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 205

Refined petroleum products - imports:
22.57 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
6,220 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Communications

Telephone system:
Domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
International: country code - 683 (2001)

Broadcast media:
1 government-owned TV station with many of the programs supplied by Television New Zealand; 1 government-owned radio station broadcasting in AM and FM (2009)

Internet country code:
.nu

Internet hosts:
79,508 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Internet users:
1,100 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 214

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 227

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 120 km
Country comparison to the world: 213
Paved: 120 km (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Alofi

Military

Military branches:
no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Niue



Flag description:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large star on a blue disk in the center and a smaller star on each arm of the bold red cross; the larger star stands for Niue, the smaller stars recall the Southern Cross constellation on the New Zealand flag and symbolize links with that country; yellow represents the bright sunshine of Niue and the warmth and friendship between Niue and New Zealand