Introduction

Australia-Oceania :: Nauru

Background:
The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific region. Germany annexed the island in 1888. A German-British consortium began mining the island's phosphate deposits early in the 20th century. Australian forces occupied Nauru in World War I; it subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War - and a brutal occupation by Japan - Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999 as the world's smallest independent republic.

Geography

Location:
Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates:
0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references:
Oceania

Area:
Total: 21 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 240
Land: 21 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
30 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain:
sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: unnamed elevation along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources:
phosphates, fish

Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 20%
Other: 80% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
world's smallest island country; situated just 53 km south of the Equator; Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Nauruan(s)
Adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups:
Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%

Languages:
Nauruan 93% (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English 2% (widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes), other 5% (includes I-Kiribati 2% and Chinese 2%)
note: percentages represent main language spoken at home; Nauruan is spoken by 95% of the population, English by 66%, and other languages by 12% (2011 est.)

Religions:
Protestant 60.4% (includes Nauru Congregational 35.7%, Assembly of God 13%, Nauru Independent Church 9.5%, Baptist 1.5%, and Seventh Day Adventist .7%), Roman Catholic 33%, other 3.7%, none 1.8%, unspecified 1.1% (2011 est.)

Population:
9,488 (July 2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 227

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.5% (male 1,359/female 1,720)
15-24 years: 16.9% (male 828/female 773)
25-54 years: 42.7% (male 2,013/female 2,040)
55-64 years: 6% (male 228/female 343)
65 years and over: 1.8% (male 73/female 111) (2014 est.)
Population pyramid:

Median age:
Total: 25.3 years
Male: 25.6 years
Female: 25 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.56% (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 151

Birth rate:
25.61 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Death rate:
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Net migration rate:
-14.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 218

Urbanization:
Urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 0.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 0.84 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.1
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 8.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 153
Male: 10.54 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 6.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 66.4 years
Country comparison to the world: 169
Male: 62.3 years
Female: 69.83 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.93 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
35.6% (2007)

Health expenditures:
9.8% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Physicians density:
0.71 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 96.3% of population
total: 96.3% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 3.7% of population
total: 3.7% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 65.6% of population
total: 65.6% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 34.4% of population
total: 34.4% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
71.1% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 2

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
4.8% (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 9 years
Male: 9 years
Female: 10 years (2008)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
Conventional short form: Nauru
Local long form: Republic of Nauru
Local short form: Nauru
Former: Pleasant Island

Government type:
republic

Capital:
no official capital; government offices in Yaren District
Time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence:
31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution:
effective 29 January 1968; amended 1968, 2009; note - in early 2013, further amendments were introduced (2013)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of common law based on the English model and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Baron WAQA (since 11 June 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Baron WAQA (since 11 June 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of Parliament
Elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held on 11 June 2013 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: Baron WAQA elected president on 11 June 2013

Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (19 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
Elections: last held on 8 June 2013 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 19

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 1 judge)
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president to serve until age 65
Subordinate courts: District Court, Family Court

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]
Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party
Nauru Party (informal)

note: loose multiparty system

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)

International organization participation:
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, ICAO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene Inemwin MOSES (since 10 February 2006)
Chancery: 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, NY 10017
Telephone: [1] (212) 937-0074
FAX: [1] (212) 937-0079
Consulate(s): Agana (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji, currently Ambassador Frankie A. REED, is accredited to Nauru

National anthem:
Name: "Nauru Bwiema" (Song of Nauru)
Lyrics/music: Margaret HENDRIE/Laurence Henry HICKS
note: adopted 1968

Economy

Economy - overview:
Revenues of this tiny island traditionally have come from exports of phosphates. Few other resources exist, with most necessities being imported, mainly from Australia, its former occupier and later major source of support. In 2005 an Australian company entered into an agreement to exploit remaining supplies. Primary reserves of phosphates were exhausted and mining ceased in 2006, but mining of a deeper layer of "secondary phosphate" in the interior of the island began the following year. The secondary phosphate deposits may last another 30 years. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. As a result of heavy spending from the trust funds, the government faced virtual bankruptcy. To cut costs the government has frozen wages and reduced overstaffed public service departments. Nauru lost further revenue in 2008 with the closure of Australia's refugee processing center, making it almost totally dependent on food imports and foreign aid. Housing, hospitals, and other capital plant are deteriorating. The cost to Australia of keeping the government and economy afloat continues to climb. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist with estimates of Nauru's GDP varying widely.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$60 million (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 224

GDP (official exchange rate):
$NA

GDP - real growth rate:
NA%

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,000 (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 6.1%
Industry: 33%
Services: 60.8% (2009 est.)

Agriculture - products:
coconuts

Industries:
phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force - by occupation:
note: most of the labor force is employed in phosphate mining, public administration, education, and transportation

Unemployment rate:
90% (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $13.5 million
Expenditures: $13.5 million (2005)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA% (2011 est.)

Exports:
$64,000 (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 221

Exports - commodities:
phosphates

Imports:
$NA (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery

Debt - external:
$33.3 million (2004 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
1.031 (2013)
0.9658 (2011 est.)
1.0902 (2010)
1.2822 (2009)
1.2059 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
35 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 210

Electricity - consumption:
32.55 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 210

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1,000 kW (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 204

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,075 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 179

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
168,800 Mt (2011 est.)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1,900 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 219

Telephones - mobile cellular:
6,800 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 213

Telephone system:
General assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities
International: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:
1 government-owned TV station broadcasting programs from New Zealand sent via satellite or on videotape; 1 government-owned radio station, broadcasting on AM and FM, utilizes Australian and British programs (2009)

Internet country code:
.nr

Internet hosts:
8,162 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Transportation

Airports:
1 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 229

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 30 km
Country comparison to the world: 219
Paved: 24 km
Unpaved: 6 km (2002)

Ports and terminals:
Major seaport(s): Nauru

Military

Military branches:
no regular military forces (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,542 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,823
Females age 16-49: 2,034 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 74
Female: 78 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Nauru



Flag description:
blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; blue stands for the Pacific Ocean, the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Nauru ID - 563170 PB - The World Factbook 2014 UR - https://relief.unboundmedicine.com/relief/view/The-World-Factbook-2014/563170/all/Nauru ER -