Introduction

South America :: Peru

Background:
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.

Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references:
South America

Area:
Total: 1,285,216 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 20
Land: 1,279,996 sq km
Water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
Total: 7,461 km
Border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline:
2,414 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use:
Arable land: 2.84%
Permanent crops: 0.66%
Other: 96.5% (2011)

Irrigated land:
11,960 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 19.34 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
Per capita: 727.6 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane

Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Peruvian(s)
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups:
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Languages:
Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2% (2007 Census)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)

Demographic profile:
Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Population:
29,849,303 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.6% (male 4,197,698/female 4,053,852)
15-24 years: 19.4% (male 2,894,420/female 2,891,714)
25-54 years: 39.2% (male 5,633,249/female 6,056,017)
55-64 years: 7.1% (male 1,039,975/female 1,086,428)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 947,349/female 1,048,601) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 54.2 %
Youth dependency ratio: 44.4 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 9.9 %
Potential support ratio: 10.1 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 26.7 years
Male: 26 years
Female: 27.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Birth rate:
18.85 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Death rate:
5.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 164

Net migration rate:
-2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174

Urbanization:
Urban population: 77% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
LIMA (capital) 8.769 million; Arequipa 778,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.3
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
67 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 20.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 89
Male: 23.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 18.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 72.98 years
Country comparison to the world: 128
Male: 71.01 years
Female: 75.05 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
68.9% (2011)

Health expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 137

Physicians density:
0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 85% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 15% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 81% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 71% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 19% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 29% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
75,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever) (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
15.7% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 117

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
4.5% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 155

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 89.6%
Male: 94.9%
Female: 84.6% (2007 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 13 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 13 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 2,545,855
Percentage: 34 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 16.2% (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru

Government type:
constitutional republic

Capital:
Name: Lima
Geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region

Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution:
29 December 1993

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
note: Prime Minister Juan Federico JIMENEZ Mayor (since 23 July 2012) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections last held on 10 April 2011 with runoff election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
Election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 10 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
Judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) (a coalition of the Alliance for Progress, Humanist Party, National Restoration Party, and Popular Christian Party) [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Fuerza 2011 [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
Gana Peru (a coalition of Lima Para Todos, Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian Nationalist Party, and Peruvian Socialist Party) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN (a coalition of Cambio 90, Siempre Unidos, Todos por el Peru, and Union for Peru or UPP) [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)

International organization participation:
APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston FORSYTH Mejia
Chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
Consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS
Embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
Mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
Telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397

National symbol(s):
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama)

National anthem:
Name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)

Lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. The Peruvian economy has been growing by an average of 6.4% per year since 2002 with a stable/slightly appreciating exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 is expected to be below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. Growth has been in the 6-9% range for the last three years, due partly to a leap in private investment, especially in the extractive sector, which accounts for more than 60% of Peru's total exports. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 23 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the new Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, and four other countries; concluded negotiations with Venezuela, Costa Rica, and Guatemala; and begun trade talks with two other Central American countries and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico called the Pacific Alliance that rivals Mercosur in combined population, GDP, and trade. The US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force 1 February 2009, opening the way to greater trade and investment between the two economies. Although Peru has continued to attract foreign investment, political activism and protests are hampering development of some projects related to natural resource extraction.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$332 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40
$312.4 billion (2011 est.)
$292.2 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$199 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
6.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40
6.9% (2011 est.)
8.8% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,900 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111
$10,400 (2011 est.)
$9,900 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
23.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
23.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 61.7%
Government consumption: 10.5%
Investment in fixed capital: 26.6%
Investment in inventories: 0.2%
Exports of goods and services: 25.5%
Imports of goods and services: -24.5%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 6.4%
Industry: 36.3%
Services: 57.3% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish

Industries:
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:
6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42

Labor force:
16.2 million
Country comparison to the world: 39
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2012 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 0.7%
Industry: 23.8%
Services: 75.5% (2005)

Unemployment rate:
6.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71
7.7% (2011 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

Population below poverty line:
27.8% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 1.4%
Highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 34
51 (2005)

Budget:
Revenues: $62.19 billion
Expenditures: $57.9 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
31.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
2.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Public debt:
16.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133
19.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114
3.4% (2011 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

Central bank discount rate:
5.05% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 68
5.05% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.23% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22
18.69% (31 December 2011 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity

Stock of narrow money:
$32.66 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58
$25.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$73.97 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
$64.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$37.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$33.37 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$153.4 billion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 38
$121.6 billion (31 December 2011)
$160.9 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
-$7.136 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 169
-$3.341 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$45.64 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61
$46.27 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys

Exports - partners:
China 19.7%, US 15.5%, Canada 9.4%, Japan 6.5%, Spain 5.2%, Chile 4.8% (2012)

Imports:
$41.11 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
$36.97 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines

Imports - partners:
US 24.4%, China 13.9%, Brazil 6.3%, Argentina 5.4%, Chile 4.7%, Ecuador 4.5%, Colombia 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$64.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32
$48.93 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$52.59 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61
$43.52 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
note: public debt component of total: $20.6 billion (31 December 2009)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$63.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$51.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$3.041 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$3.099 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
2.6376 (2012 est.)
2.7541 (2011 est.)
2.8251 (2010 est.)
3.0115 (2009)
2.91 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
38.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Electricity - consumption:
34.25 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - imports:
6 million kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
7.982 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
59% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
41% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Crude oil - production:
152,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Crude oil - exports:
18,880 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Crude oil - imports:
99,590 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Crude oil - proved reserves:
586.1 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Refined petroleum products - production:
173,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
172,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61

Refined petroleum products - exports:
60,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Refined petroleum products - imports:
38,390 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Natural gas - production:
31.12 billion cu m (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - consumption:
5.41 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Natural gas - exports:
3.59 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - proved reserves:
352.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
41.88 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.688 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Telephones - mobile cellular:
32.461 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 33

Telephone system:
General assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
International: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:
10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)

Internet country code:
.pe

Internet hosts:
234,102 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Internet users:
9.158 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Transportation

Airports:
191 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 59
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
Under 914 m:
82 (2013)

Heliports:
5 (2013)

Pipelines:
extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 1,907 km
Country comparison to the world: 74
Standard gauge: 1,772 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 135 km 0.914-m gauge (2012)

Roadways:
Total: 140,672 km (of which 18,698 km are paved)
Country comparison to the world: 34
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (of which 14,748 km are paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)

Waterways:
8,808 km (there are 8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 14

Merchant marine:
Total: 22
Country comparison to the world: 92
By type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
Foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
Registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal

Military

Military branches:
Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 7,385,588
Females age 16-49: 7,727,623 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 5,788,629
Females age 16-49: 6,565,097 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 304,094
Female: 298,447 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2011)

Illicit drugs:
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption

Flag of Peru



Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace