Introduction

Europe :: Portugal

Background:
Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Geography

Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates:
39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 92,090 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 111
Land: 91,470 sq km
Water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
Total: 1,214 km
Border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline:
1,793 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain:
mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources:
fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
Arable land: 11.88%
Permanent crops: 7.71%
Other: 80.41% (2011)

Irrigated land:
5,837 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources:
68.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 8.46 cu km/yr (12%/18%/69%)
Per capita: 812 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues:
soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups:
homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Languages:
Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)

Population:
10,799,270 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 900,758/female 827,219)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 655,365/female 581,010)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 2,303,445/female 2,270,380)
55-64 years: 11.8% (male 595,464/female 681,506)
65 years and over: 18.4% (male 811,005/female 1,173,118) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 50.5 %
Youth dependency ratio: 22.2 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 28.2 %
Potential support ratio: 3.5 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 40.7 years
Male: 38.6 years
Female: 42.9 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.15% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Birth rate:
9.59 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Death rate:
10.91 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Net migration rate:
2.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Urbanization:
Urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
LISBON (capital) 2.808 million; Porto 1.344 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.4 (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 163

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 188
Male: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 78.85 years
Country comparison to the world: 49
Male: 75.61 years
Female: 82.32 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.51 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
86.8% (2005/06)

Health expenditures:
11% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 20

Physicians density:
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
3.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
42,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 91

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Education expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.4%
Male: 97%
Female: 94% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 16 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 16 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 36,569
Percentage: 3 %
note: data represents children ages 6-14 (2001 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 30.1%
Country comparison to the world: 23
Male: 28.7%
Female: 31.7% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
Conventional short form: Portugal
Local long form: Republica Portuguesa
Local short form: Portugal

Government type:
republic; parliamentary democracy

Capital:
Name: Lisbon
Geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence:
1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:
Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died

Constitution:
adopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised
note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media

Legal system:
civil law system; Constitutional Tribunal review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
Head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel Mamede PASSOS COELHO (since 21 June 2011)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
Election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 7%, BE 5%, other 11%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 16, BE 8

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms
Subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Auditoria do Tribunal); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]
Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]
Socialist Party or PS [Maria de BELEM ROSEIRA]
The Left Bloc or BE [Pedro Filipe SOARES]
Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Joao PROENCA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)

Other: the media; labor unions

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO
Chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-3007
FAX: [1] (202) 223-3926
Consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (NJ), San Francisco
Consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Allan J. KATZ
Embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
Mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
Telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
Consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

National symbol(s):
armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky)

National anthem:
Name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)

Lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

Economy

Economy - overview:
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted 2.5% in 2009, before growing 1.4% in 2010, but GDP fell again in 2011 and 2012, as the government began implementing spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, agreed to in May 2011. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a destination for foreign direct investment, in part because its rigid labor market hindered greater productivity and growth. However, the government of Pedro PASSOS COELHO has enacted several measures to introduce more flexibility into the labor market, and, this, along with steps to reduce high levels of public debt, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign investors. The government reduced the budget deficit from 10.1% of GDP in 2009 to 4.5% in 2011, an achievement made possible only by the extraordinary revenues obtained from the one-time transfer of bank pension funds to the social security system. The budget deficit worsened in 2012 as a sharp reduction in domestic consumption took a bigger bite out of value-added tax revenues while rising unemployment benefits increased expenditures more than anticipated. Poor growth prospects over the next year have reinforced investors' concerns about the government's ability to achieve its budget deficit targets and regain full access to bond market financing when the EU-IMF financing program expires in 2013.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$250.6 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52
$258.8 billion (2011 est.)
$262.9 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$212.7 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-3.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 213
-1.6% (2011 est.)
1.9% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$23,800 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
$24,500 (2011 est.)
$24,700 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
14.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106
10.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 66.3%
Government consumption: 18.3%
Investment in fixed capital: 15.8%
Investment in inventories: 0.1%
Exports of goods and services: 38.7%
Imports of goods and services: -39.2%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2.4%
Industry: 21.3%
Services: 76.3% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish

Industries:
textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine and other foods; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
-9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Labor force:
5.495 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 11.7%
Industry: 28.5%
Services: 59.8% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:
15.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149
12.7% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
18% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 3.1%
Highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
38.5 (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 71
35.6 (1995)

Budget:
Revenues: $87.16 billion
Expenditures: $100.8 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
41% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Public debt:
123.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 9
108.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86
3.7% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 124
1.75% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.37% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 148
5.71% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$88.92 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38
$89.42 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$298.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31
$322.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$433.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
$451.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$61.69 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 46
$82 billion (31 December 2010)
$98.65 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$6 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167
-$15.44 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$58.24 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56
$60.01 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals

Exports - partners:
Spain 22.7%, Germany 12.4%, France 11.9%, Angola 6.5%, UK 5.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2012)

Imports:
$69.48 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43
$79.67 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports - partners:
Spain 32%, Germany 11.5%, France 6.6%, Italy 5.3%, Netherlands 4.9% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$22.66 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
$21.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$508.3 billion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 26
$482.2 billion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$131 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35
$122.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$64.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33
$64.25 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
50.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity - consumption:
47.81 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Electricity - exports:
3.191 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Electricity - imports:
5.814 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
17.39 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
48.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 159

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
23.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
22.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 5

Crude oil - production:
1,926 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 168

Crude oil - imports:
205,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Crude oil - proved reserves:
NA bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production:
237,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
259,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Refined petroleum products - exports:
49,650 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Refined petroleum products - imports:
83,520 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Natural gas - consumption:
5.212 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162

Natural gas - imports:
5.181 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
51.43 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
4.53 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Telephones - mobile cellular:
12.335 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Telephone system:
General assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
Domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
International: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2010)

Broadcast media:
Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP),the publicly-owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:
.pt

Internet hosts:
3.748 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Internet users:
5.168 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 45

Transportation

Airports:
64 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 43
Over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
Under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m:
20 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 3,319 km
Country comparison to the world: 53
Broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 82,900 km
Country comparison to the world: 56
Paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Waterways:
210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Merchant marine:
Total: 109
Country comparison to the world: 50
By type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
Foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)
Registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

Military

Military branches:
Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,566,264
Females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,103,080
Females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 62,208
Female: 54,786 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
2.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 553 (2012)

Illicit drugs:
seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

Flag of Portugal



Flag description:
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation