Introduction

Europe :: Serbia

Background:
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. The EU-moderated Belgrade-Pristina dialogue began in March 2011 and was raised to the level of prime ministers in October 2012.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 77,474 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 117
Land: 77,474 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,026 km
Border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
Highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use:
Arable land: 37.28%
Permanent crops: 3.41%
Other: 59.31% (2011)

Irrigated land:
919.6 sq km (2011)

Total renewable water resources:
162.2 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2011)

Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Serb(s)
Adjective: Serbian

Ethnic groups:
Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)

Languages:
Serbian (official) 88.3%, Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina

Religions:
Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)

Population:
7,243,007 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98
note: does not include the population of Kosovo

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.8% (male 553,644/female 519,887)
15-24 years: 11.9% (male 442,442/female 416,698)
25-54 years: 41.7% (male 1,521,214/female 1,497,906)
55-64 years: 14.7% (male 513,282/female 554,787)
65 years and over: 16.9% (male 500,864/female 722,283) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 44 %
Youth dependency ratio: 23.4 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 20.7 %
Potential support ratio: 4.8 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 41.7 years
Male: 40 years
Female: 43.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.46% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 223

Birth rate:
9.15 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206

Death rate:
13.77 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 12

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Urbanization:
Urban population: 56% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BELGRADE (capital) 1.115 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.2 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 150

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 6.28 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 170
Male: 7.24 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 74.79 years
Country comparison to the world: 103
Male: 71.94 years
Female: 77.82 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 202

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
60.8% (2010)

Health expenditures:
10.4% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 26

Physicians density:
2.04 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 99% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 92% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 8% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 128

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,400 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 144

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.8% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.8% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Education expenditures:
4.7% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98%
Male: 99.2%
Female: 96.9% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 14 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 36,141
Percentage: 4 % (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 46.1% (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 7

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
Conventional short form: Serbia
Local long form: Republika Srbija
Local short form: Srbija
Former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Belgrade (Beograd)
Geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
122 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 23 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
Municipalities: Ada, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar, Apatin, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac, Backa Palanka, Backa Topola, Backi Petrovac, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej, Bela Crkva, Bela Palanka, Beocin, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija, Irig, Ivanjica, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica, Kovin, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja, Nova Varos, Novi Becej, Novi Knezevac, Odzaci, Opovo, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci, Petrovac na Mlavi, Pirot, Plandiste, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma, Secanj, Senta, Sid, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran, Sremski Karlovci, Stara Pazova, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin, Titel, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas, Vrnjacka Banja, Vrsac, Zabalj, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste, Zitorada
Cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica, Subotica, Uzice, Vajevo, Vranje, Zajecar, Zrenjanin

Independence:
5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday:
National Day, 15 February

Constitution:
adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 31 May 2012)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 23 July 2012)
Cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet
Elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
Election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president in runoff election; NIKOLIC 51.2% of the vote, Boris TADIC 48.8% of the vote

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 24.04%, Choice for a Better Life 22.11%, SPS/PUPS/JS 14.53%, DSS 7.00%, Turnover 6.52%, United Regions of Serbia 5.49%, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 1.77%, other 18.54%; seats by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 73, Choice for a Better Life 67, SPS/PUPS/JS 44, DSS 21, Turnover 19, United Regions of Serbia 16, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 5, other 5
note: May 2013 composition by parliamentary groups - SNS 65, DS 45, SPS 25, DSS 21, United Regions of Serbia 16, LDP 13, PUPS 12, SDPS 9, Independent MPs 8, NS 8, JS 7, Together for Serbia Parliamentary Group 6, SVM 5, LSV 5, SPO 5

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
note - in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
Subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and two levels of misdemeanor courts

Political parties and leaders:
Albanian Coalition of Presevo Valley [Riza HALIMI]
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Bosniak Democratic Union or BDZ [Elmir ELFIC]
Choice for a Better Life [Boris TADIC] (includes Democratic Party of DS [Dragan DJILAS], Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC], League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK], Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC], Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina or DSHV [Petar KUNTIC], and Christian Democratic Party of Serbia or DHSS [Olgica BATIC])
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]
Let's Get Serbia Moving [Tomislav NIKOLIC] (includes Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC], New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC], Movement of Socialists [Aleksandar VULIN], Strength of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC], Association of Small and Medium Businesses and Entrepreneurs of Serbia, Coalition of Refugee Associations in Serbia, Bosniak People's Party [Mujo MUKOVIC], Democratic Party of Macedonians [Mile SPIROVSKI], Roma Party [Srdan SAJN], Movement of Vlach Unity, and Economic Renewal of Serbia)
None of the Offered Options or NOPO [Nikola TULIMIROVIC]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Together for Serbia Parliamentary Group
Turnover [Cedomir JOVANOVIC] (includes Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC], Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC], Social Democratic Union or SDU [Zarko KORAC], Rich Serbia [Zaharije TRNAVCEVIC], Vojvodina's Party [Igor KURJACKI], Democratic Party of Sandzak, Green Ecological Party [Mithat NOKIC], and Party of Bulgarians of Serbia)
United Regions of Serbia [Mladan DINKIC]
United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
Dveri - Movement for the Life of Serbia
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP NASI (Serbian National Movement NASI)

International organization participation:
BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Vladimir PETROVIC
Chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KIRBY
Embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade, PAK 112807
Mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
Telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230

National symbol(s):
double-headed eagle

National anthem:
Name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)

Lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; the song was originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries

Economy

Economy - overview:
Serbia has a transitional economy mostly dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains large and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Serbia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, national air carrier, and others - remain in state hands. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. Serbia's negotiations with the World Trade Organization are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia's program with the IMF was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviated from the program parameters; the arrangement is now void. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. The economy slipped by an estimated 2.0% in 2012, following growth of 1.6% in 2011, 1.0% in 2010, and a 3.5% contraction in 2009. Growing deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy and contribute to growing concern of a public debt crisis, given that Serbia's total public debt as a share of GDP doubled between 2008 and 2012, reaching 61.5% of GDP at the end of 2012. Further, Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Serbia adopted a new long-term economic growth plan in 2010 that calls for a quadrupling of exports over ten years and heavy investments in basic infrastructure. In 2012, however, exports fell by 3.6% compared to 2011, largely as a result of the halt in production at the former US Steel plant and a summer drought that slashed agricultural production. Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions, and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include a strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA).

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$80.02 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80
$81.45 billion (2011 est.)
$80.16 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$37.4 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207
1.6% (2011 est.)
1% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,600 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 114
$10,800 (2011 est.)
$10,700 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 79.3%
Government consumption: 20.2%
Investment in fixed capital: 17.3%
Investment in inventories: 0.7%
Exports of goods and services: 43.2%
Imports of goods and services: -60.8%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 7.6%
Industry: 31.7%
Services: 60.7% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries; beef, pork, milk

Industries:
base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:
-2.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Labor force:
3.17 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 21.9%
Industry: 19.5%
Services: 58.6% (2010)

Unemployment rate:
25.9% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176
23.7% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
9.2% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.2 (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 121
30 (2003)

Budget:
Revenues: $15.54 billion
Expenditures: $18.41 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
41.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-7.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190

Public debt:
59.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
48.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the GOS issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180
11.2% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
11.75% (6 February 2013)
Country comparison to the world: 28
9.5% (January 2012)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
17.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
17.2% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$5.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94
$5.783 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$19.78 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86
$18.55 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$21.55 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79
$21.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$9.54 billion (13 February 2013)
Country comparison to the world: 75
$8.365 billion (31 December 2011)
$9.69 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
-$3.895 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 156
-$4.122 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$11.33 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 90
$11.78 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition, automobiles

Imports:
$18.35 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 78
$19.18 billion (2011 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$14.13 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
$15.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$33.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
$31.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$24.67 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
87.992 (2012 est.)
73.104 (2011 est.)
77.729 (2010 est.)
67.634 (2009)
62.9 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
37.86 billion kWh (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - consumption:
37.37 billion kWh (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Electricity - exports:
1.24 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Electricity - imports:
1.5 billion kWh (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 55

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
8.359 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
66.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
26.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 177

Crude oil - production:
13,160 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Crude oil - imports:
45,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil - proved reserves:
77.5 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77

Refined petroleum products - production:
55,960 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
81,440 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Refined petroleum products - exports:
3,981 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Refined petroleum products - imports:
27,330 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas - production:
557 million cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70

Natural gas - consumption:
2.84 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Natural gas - imports:
2.61 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 45

Natural gas - proved reserves:
48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
49.92 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.03 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.182 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Telephone system:
General assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
Domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007
International: country code - 381 (2011)

Internet country code:
.rs

Internet hosts:
1.102 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Internet users:
4.107 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Transportation

Airports:
26 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 10
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
Under 914 m:
5 (2013)

Heliports:
2 (2012)

Railways:
Total: 3,379 km
Country comparison to the world: 52
Standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways:
Total: 41,913 km
Country comparison to the world: 87
Paved: 26,007 km
Unpaved: 15,906 km (2007)

Waterways:
587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Military

Military branches:
Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,395,426
Females age 16-49: 1,356,415 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 43,945
Female: 41,080 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 49,931 (Croatia); 16,418 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2012)
IDPs: 228,215 (most are Kosovar Serbs some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2011)
Stateless persons: 8,500 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2012)

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

Flag of Serbia



Flag description:
three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia