Introduction

Europe :: Romania

Background:
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references:
Europe

Area:
Total: 238,391 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 83
Land: 229,891 sq km
Water: 8,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,508 km
Border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline:
225 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use:
Arable land: 37.73%
Permanent crops: 1.86%
Other: 60.41% (2011)

Irrigated land:
6,153 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources:
211.9 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)
Per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Romanian(s)
Adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups:
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)

Languages:
Romanian (official) 91%, Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%

Religions:
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)

Population:
21,790,479 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 1,642,950/female 1,556,430)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 1,317,820/female 1,255,982)
25-54 years: 45.5% (male 5,000,720/female 4,904,527)
55-64 years: 13% (male 1,319,066/female 1,508,158)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 1,326,641/female 1,958,185) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 43.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 21.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 21.7 %
Potential support ratio: 4.6 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 39.4 years
Male: 38 years
Female: 41 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.27% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 216

Birth rate:
9.4 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 203

Death rate:
11.86 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 30

Net migration rate:
-0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123

Urbanization:
Urban population: 52.8% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: -0.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.933 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
26 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 128

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 10.44 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 142
Male: 11.82 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 74.45 years
Country comparison to the world: 110
Male: 70.99 years
Female: 78.13 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 213

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
69.8%
note: percent of women aged 15-49 (2005)

Health expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Physicians density:
1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density:
6.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 70% of population
total: 84% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 30% of population
total: 16% of population (2000 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 72% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 28% of population (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 162

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
16,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
19.1% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.5% (2002)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Education expenditures:
4.3% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.7%
Male: 98.3%
Female: 97.1% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 26,658
Percentage: 1 % (2000 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 23.7%
Country comparison to the world: 40
Male: 23.7%
Female: 23.8% (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Romania
Local long form: none
Local short form: Romania

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Bucharest
Geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Independence:
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday:
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution:
8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived a national recall referendum on both occasions
Head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
Election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
Elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 11 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
Judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members appointed - 6 by Parliament and 3 by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders:
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]
Right Romania Alliance or ARD [Vasile BLAGA, Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU, and Aurelian PAVELESCU] (a center-right electoral alliance that includes PDL, FC, PNT-CD)
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
Social Liberal Union or USL [Victor PONTA and Crin ANTONESCU] (an alliance of the PSD, PNL, UNPR, and PC)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Other: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA
Chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER
Embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
Mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
Telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

National symbol(s):
golden eagle

National anthem:
Name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

Lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

Economy

Economy - overview:
Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania''s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven by strong consumer demand, high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. As a result of the increase in fiscal and current account deficits and the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. Worsening international financial markets, as well as a series of drastic austerity measures implemented to meet Romania''s obligations under the IMF-led bail-out agreement contributed to a GDP contraction of 6.6% in 2009, followed by a 1.1% GDP contraction in 2010. The economy returned to positive growth in 2011 due to strong exports, a better than expected harvest, and weak domestic demand. In 2012, however, growth slowed to less than 1%, partially due to slackening export demand and an extended drought that resulted in an exceptionally poor harvest. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. The Romanian authorities announced that they do not intend to draw funds under the agreement.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$277.9 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
$277 billion (2011 est.)
$271.1 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$169.4 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 174
2.2% (2011 est.)
-1.1% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,000 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101
$13,000 (2011 est.)
$12,600 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
23.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56
22.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 71.5%
Government consumption: 6.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
Investment in inventories: 0.3%
Exports of goods and services: 40%
Imports of goods and services: -45.2%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 7.5%
Industry: 33%
Services: 59.5% (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep

Industries:
electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Labor force:
9.252 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 52

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 31.6%
Industry: 21.1%
Services: 47.3% (2010)

Unemployment rate:
5.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56
7.5% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
22.2% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 1.7%
Highest 10%: 19.8% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.2 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 97
30 (2003)

Budget:
Revenues: $55.69 billion
Expenditures: $59.95 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
32.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98

Public debt:
37.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94
32.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104
5.8% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5.25% (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 63
5.75% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11.33% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67
12.12% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$26.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62
$25.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$63.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
$63.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$82.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
$82.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$29.56 billion (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 62
$21.2 billion (31 December 2011)
$32.38 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
-$7.488 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171
-$7.747 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$58.11 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57
$62.68 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels

Exports - partners:
Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5% (2012)

Imports:
$67.54 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44
$73.12 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products

Imports - partners:
Germany 17.5%, Italy 11%, Hungary 9.1%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.4%, Poland 4.3%, Austria 4.2%, Kazakhstan 4.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$46.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40
$48.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$132.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43
$129.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$75.46 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46
$73.97 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.727 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
$2.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
lei (RON) per US dollar -
3.4682 (2012 est.)
3.0486 (2011 est.)
3.1779 (2010 est.)
3.0493 (2009)
2.5 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
60.39 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - consumption:
53.74 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Electricity - exports:
2.94 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Electricity - imports:
1.04 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
24.98 million kW (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
61.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
9.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
27% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Crude oil - production:
92,140 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172

Crude oil - imports:
169,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Crude oil - proved reserves:
600 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Refined petroleum products - production:
298,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
218,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Refined petroleum products - exports:
107,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Refined petroleum products - imports:
34,250 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Natural gas - production:
11.08 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43

Natural gas - consumption:
14.2 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166

Natural gas - imports:
3.12 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Natural gas - proved reserves:
63 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
78.43 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
4.68 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 31

Telephones - mobile cellular:
23.4 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Telephone system:
General assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
Domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
International: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)

Broadcast media:
a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:
.ro

Internet hosts:
2.667 million (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Internet users:
7.787 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Transportation

Airports:
45 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 26
Over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
Under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m:
14 (2013)

Heliports:
2 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 10,785 km
Country comparison to the world: 21
Broad gauge: 135 km 1.524-m gauge
Standard gauge: 10,645 km 1.435-m gauge (4,002 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 5 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)

Roadways:
Total: 82,386 km (does not include urban roads)
Country comparison to the world: 57
Paved: 71,154 km (includes 371 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 11,232 km (2009)

Waterways:
1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Merchant marine:
Total: 5
Country comparison to the world: 127
By type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
Foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
Registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Braila, Constanta, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Midia, Tulcea

Military

Military branches:
Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
20-35 years of age for compulsory male military service; conscription ended 2006, but military service remains mandatory; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 5,601,234
Females age 16-49: 5,428,939 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 4,550,409
Females age 16-49: 4,507,880 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 117,798
Female: 111,607 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Stateless persons: 248 (2012)

Illicit drugs:
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos

Flag of Romania



Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova