World Factbook

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Introduction

North America :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon(territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Background:
First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

Geography

Location:
Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates:
46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references:
North America

Area:
Total: 242 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 214
Land: 242 sq km
Water: 0 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area - comparative:
one and half times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
120 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy

Terrain:
mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
Arable land: 8.7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 91.3% (2011)

Irrigated land:
NA

Natural hazards:
persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues:
recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment

Geography - note:
vegetation scanty

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
Adjective: French

Ethnic groups:
Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Languages:
French (official)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Population:
5,774 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 229

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.5% (male 491/female 463)
15-24 years: 8.5% (male 254/female 239)
25-54 years: 44% (male 1,264/female 1,275)
55-64 years: 13.9% (male 421/female 380)
65 years and over: 17.1% (male 405/female 582) (2013 est.)

Median age:
Total: 43.9 years
Male: 43.5 years
Female: 44.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
-1.01% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 231

Birth rate:
7.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 222

Death rate:
9.18 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Net migration rate:
-8.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207

Urbanization:
Urban population: 91% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
SAINT-PIERRE (capital) 5,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 162
Male: 8.28 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 80.13 years
Country comparison to the world: 32
Male: 77.83 years
Female: 82.56 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 182

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (1982 est.)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Dependency status:
self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France

Government type:
parliamentary representative democracy

Capital:
Name: Saint-Pierre
Geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
Time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions:
none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon at the second order

Independence:
none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday:
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1789)

Constitution:
4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system:
French civil law

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Prefect Patrice LATRON (since 16 November 2011)
Head of government: President of the Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)
Cabinet: NA
Elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats, 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
Elections: elections last held on 18 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect one member to the French Senate; elections last held on 21 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2014); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects one member to the French National Assembly; elections last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRG 1

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)
Judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA
Subordinate courts: NA

Political parties and leaders:
Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UDF/RPR list)
Cap sur l'Avenir (affiliated with PRG)
Left Radical Party or PRG
Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AM
Socialist Party or PS
Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
UPU, WFTU (NGOs)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

National symbol(s):
16th-century sailing ship

National anthem:
Note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)

Economy

Economy - overview:
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$215.3 million (2006 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 219
note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

GDP (official exchange rate):
$215.3 million (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
NA%

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$34,900 (2006 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 2%
Industry: 15%
Services: 83% (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Industries:
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
3,194 (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 225

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 18%
Industry: 41%
Services: 41% (1996)

Unemployment rate:
9.9% (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $70 million
Expenditures: $60 million (1996)

Taxes and other revenues:
32.5% of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 78

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
4.6% of GDP
Country comparison to the world: 14

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 135
8.1% (2005)

Exports:
$6.641 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 215
$5.5 million (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:
fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Imports:
$95.35 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 213
$68.2 million (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Debt - external:
$NA

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:
53 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 203

Electricity - consumption:
49.29 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 204

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
27,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 175

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
974.1 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 204

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Refined petroleum products - imports:
584 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
152,600 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
4,800 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 211

Telephone system:
General assessment: adequate
International: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system

Broadcast media:
2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)

Internet country code:
.pm

Internet hosts:
15 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 224

Transportation

Airports:
2 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 117 km
Country comparison to the world: 214
Paved: 80 km
Unpaved: 37 km (2000)

Ports and terminals:
Saint-Pierre

Military

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 1,064
Females age 16-49: 1,069 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 34
Female: 32 (2010 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon



Flag description:
a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536
note: the flag of France used for official occasions