World Factbook

Saint Lucia

Introduction

Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Lucia

Background:
The island, with its fine natural harbor at Castries, was contested between England and France throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries (changing possession 14 times); it was finally ceded to the UK in 1814. Even after the abolition of slavery on its plantations in 1834, Saint Lucia remained an agricultural island, dedicated to producing tropical commodity crops. Self-government was granted in 1967 and independence in 1979.

Geography

Location:
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates:
13 53 N, 60 58 W

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
Total: 616 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 193
Land: 606 sq km
Water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative:
three and a half times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
158 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August

Terrain:
volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mount Gimie 950 m

Natural resources:
forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential

Land use:
Arable land: 4.84%
Permanent crops: 11.29%
Other: 83.87% (2011)

Irrigated land:
30 sq km (2007)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.02 cu km/yr (NA)
Per capita: 98.22 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
hurricanes; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the northern region

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere, are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Saint Lucian(s)
Adjective: Saint Lucian

Ethnic groups:
black 82.5%, mixed 11.9%, East Indian 2.4%, other or unspecified 3.1% (2001 census)

Languages:
English (official), French patois

Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Protestant 18.2% (Seventh-Day Adventist 8.5%, Pentecostal 5.7%, Anglican 2%, Evangelical 2%), other Christian 5.1%, Rastafarian 2.1%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.5%, none 4.5% (2001 census)

Population:
162,781 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.6% (male 18,101/female 17,098)
15-24 years: 16.9% (male 13,872/female 13,602)
25-54 years: 42.9% (male 33,528/female 36,230)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 6,371/female 7,372)
65 years and over: 10.2% (male 7,510/female 9,097) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 48.6 %
Youth dependency ratio: 35.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 13 %
Potential support ratio: 7.7 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 32.2 years
Male: 31.1 years
Female: 33.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.36% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160

Birth rate:
14.19 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Death rate:
7.21 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 125

Net migration rate:
-3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Urbanization:
Urban population: 28% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
CASTRIES (capital) 15,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
35 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 12.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 130
Male: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 77.22 years
Country comparison to the world: 69
Male: 74.52 years
Female: 80.08 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Health expenditures:
8.7% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 49

Physicians density:
0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2002)

Hospital bed density:
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 96% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 71% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 65% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 29% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 35% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
21.4% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 87

Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 96

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
Total population: 90.1%
Male: 89.5%
Female: 90.6% (2001 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 13 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 13 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 40.8%
Country comparison to the world: 11
Male: 37.1%
Female: 45.5% (2004)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Saint Lucia

Government type:
parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital:
Name: Castries
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 61 00 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros-Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux-Fort

Independence:
22 February 1979 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Constitution:
22 February 1979

Legal system:
English common law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dame Pearlette LOUISY (since September 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister Kenny Davis ANTHONY (since 30 November 2011)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; six members appointed on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and two after consultation with religious, economic, and social groups) and the House of Assembly (17 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: House of Assembly - last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - SLP 49.68%, UWP 45.83%; seats by party - SLP 11, UWP 6

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the member states; 3 High Court judges reside on Saint Lucia
note - Saint Lucia is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: magistrate's court

Political parties and leaders:
Lucian People's Movement or LPM [Therold PRUDENT]
Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenny ANTHONY]
United Workers Party or UWP [Stephenson KING]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia Merlyn JOHNNY
Chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
Telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6723
Consulate(s) general: Coral Gables (FL), New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Saint Lucia; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Lucia

National symbol(s):
twin pitons (volcanic peaks); Saint Lucia parrot

National anthem:
Name: "Sons and Daughters of St. Lucia"
Lyrics/music: Charles JESSE/Leton Felix THOMAS
note: adopted 1967

Economy

Economy - overview:
The island nation has been able to attract foreign business and investment, especially in its offshore banking and tourism industries. Tourism is Saint Lucia's main source of jobs and income - accounting for 65% of GDP - and the island's main source of foreign exchange earnings. The manufacturing sector is the most diverse in the Eastern Caribbean area. Crops such as bananas, mangos, and avocados continue to be grown for export, but St. Lucia''s once solid banana industry has been devastated by strong competition and by Hurricane Tomas in 2010. Saint Lucia is vulnerable to a variety of external shocks, including volatile tourism receipts, natural disasters, and dependence on foreign oil. Furthermore, high public debt - 77% of GDP in 2012 - and high debt servicing obligations constrain the ANTHONY administration''s ability to respond to adverse external shocks. St. Lucia has experienced anemic growth since the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008, largely because of a slowdown in tourism. As airlines cut back on their routes to St. Lucia in 2012, tourism growth slowed. Also, St. Lucia introduced a value added tax in 2012 of 15%, becoming the last country in the Eastern Caribbean to do so.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.233 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190
$2.243 billion (2011 est.)
$2.212 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.22 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 190
1.4% (2011 est.)
0.2% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,300 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
$13,500 (2011 est.)
$13,400 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 59%
Government consumption: 18%
Investment in fixed capital: 39.5%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 52%
Imports of goods and services: -68.5%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 3.1%
Industry: 16.3%
Services: 80.7% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa

Industries:
tourism; clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, lime processing, coconut processing

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Labor force:
79,700 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 184

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 21.7%
Industry: 24.7%
Services: 53.6% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:
20% (2003 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Budget:
Revenues: $185.2 million
Expenditures: $222.2 million (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
15.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 116

Public debt:
77% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 31
77% of GDP (2010 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110
2.8% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 88
10% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$253.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 172
$250 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.149 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 166
$1.113 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.469 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 146
$1.442 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance:
-$178.3 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
-$220.4 million (2011 est.)

Exports:
$203.3 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 183
$179.8 million (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
bananas 41%, clothing, cocoa, avacados, mangoes, coconut oil

Exports - partners:
US 13.1%, Peru 10.1%, UK 9.7%, Antigua and Barbuda 9.7%, Dominica 9.4%, France 8.5%, Barbados 8.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.9%, Grenada 6.4% (2012)

Imports:
$552.3 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 191
$616 million (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food 23%, manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 19%, chemicals, fuels

Imports - partners:
Brazil 55%, US 18.3%, Trinidad and Tobago 9.5% (2012)

Debt - external:
$438.8 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 176
$447.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2011 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)

Energy

Electricity - production:
358 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 165

Electricity - consumption:
317.3 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
76,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 173

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 178

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 187

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 189

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 186

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2,922 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 182

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Refined petroleum products - imports:
2,980 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 191

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 194

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
430,800 Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
35,900 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Telephones - mobile cellular:
216,500 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 179

Telephone system:
General assessment: an adequate system that is automatically switched
Domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 25 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 130 per 100 persons
International: country code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables, along with Intelsat from Martinique, carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados (2010)

Broadcast media:
3 privately owned TV stations; 1 public TV station operating on a cable network; multi-channel cable TV service available; a mix of state-owned and privately owned broadcasters operate nearly 25 radio stations including repeater transmission stations (2007)

Internet country code:
.lc

Internet hosts:
100 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Internet users:
142,900 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Transportation

Airports:
2 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 205

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways:
Total: 1,210 km (2002)
Country comparison to the world: 181

Ports and terminals:
Castries, Cul-de-Sac, Vieux-Fort

Military

Military branches:
no regular military forces; Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (includes Special Service Unit, Marine Unit) (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary security service; no national army (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 41,414 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 32,688
Females age 16-49: 36,289 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 1,574
Female: 1,502 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
NA

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its Economic Exclusion Zone/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: St. Lucia is a destination country for persons subjected to forced prostitution and forced labor; legal and illegal immigrants from Haiti, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, and South Asia, especially those working in domestic service, are vulnerable to human trafficking; some children under 18 are coerced to work in St. Lucia's commercial sex industry
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - St. Lucia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenders or public officials complicit in human trafficking in 2012 or 2011, although a counter-trafficking act was passed in 2010; the government helps protect trafficking victims by funding an NGO and running a system of informal shelters but lacks formal procedures for identifying victims and referring them to available protection and assistance services; St. Lucia is not a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2013)

Illicit drugs:
transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

Flag of Saint Lucia



Flag description:
blue, with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border; the blue color represents the sky and sea, gold stands for sunshine and prosperity, and white and black the racial composition of the island (with the latter being dominant); the two major triangles invoke the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), cone-shaped volcanic plugs that are a symbol of the island