Introduction

Africa :: Tunisia

Background:
Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012, and released a second working draft in December 2012. The interim government has proposed presidential and parliamentary elections be held in 2013.

Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya

Geographic coordinates:
34 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 163,610 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 93
Land: 155,360 sq km
Water: 8,250 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
Total: 1,424 km
Border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline:
1,148 km

Maritime claims:
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Climate:
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

Terrain:
mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
Highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use:
Arable land: 17.35%
Permanent crops: 14.63%
Other: 68.02% (2011)

Irrigated land:
3,970 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
4.6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 2.85 cu km/yr (14%/4%/82%)
Per capita: 295.8 cu m/yr (2001)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Tunisian(s)
Adjective: Tunisian

Ethnic groups:
Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Languages:
Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)

Religions:
Muslim (Islam - official) 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Population:
10,835,873 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 1,286,781/female 1,206,678)
15-24 years: 16.5% (male 899,534/female 890,909)
25-54 years: 44.7% (male 2,356,154/female 2,484,023)
55-64 years: 8.1% (male 442,983/female 429,767)
65 years and over: 7.7% (male 411,590/female 427,454) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 43.6 %
Youth dependency ratio: 33.3 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 10.3 %
Potential support ratio: 9.7 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 31 years
Male: 30.5 years
Female: 31.3 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.95% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 121

Birth rate:
17.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Death rate:
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 170

Net migration rate:
-1.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 158

Urbanization:
Urban population: 66.3% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
TUNIS (capital) 759,000 (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
56 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 105

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 24.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 79
Male: 27.59 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 75.46 years
Country comparison to the world: 93
Male: 73.4 years
Female: 77.66 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.01 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
63% (2012)

Health expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 102

Physicians density:
1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 94% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 6% of population (2008 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 64% of population
total: 85% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 36% of population
total: 15% of population (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,400 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
22.3% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.3% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 109

Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 79.1%
Male: 87.4%
Female: 71.1% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 15 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 30.7%
Country comparison to the world: 21
Male: 31.4%
Female: 29.3% (2005)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Tunisian Republic
Conventional short form: Tunisia
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
Local short form: Tunis

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Tunis
Geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Ariana (Aryanah), Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)

Independence:
20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)

Constitution:
note - the Constituent Assembly formed in October 2011 and charged with writing a new constitution completed a draft in April 2013

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months

Executive branch:
Note: Tunisia's interim government was appointed in December 2011 and will remain in power pending drafting of a new constitution and holding of general elections in 2013
Chief of state: President Moncef MARZOUKI (since 12 December 2011)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ali LAAREYDH (since 27 February 2013)
Cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Constituent Assembly
Elections: president elected by Constituent Assembly; election last held on 12 December 2011(next to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results: President MARZOUKI elected by Constituent Assembly with 153 of 156 votes

Legislative branch:
unicameral Constituent Assembly (217 seats); note - the legislative role of the Constituent Assembly remains unclear
Elections: initial election of 217 Constituent Assembly members held on 23 October 2011 (next to be held on 23 June 2013)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - al-Nahda 89, CPR 29, Popular Petition 26, FDTL 20, PDP 16, PDM 5, The Initiative 5, Afek Tounes 4, PCOT 3, other minor parties each with fewer than three seats 20

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into civil and criminal chambers and consists of NA judges)
note - drafting of a new constitution was begun in February 2012
Judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Magistracy Council (also called the Superior Council of the Judiciary), a 7-member body of judges and prosecutors; judges appointed by presidential decree; judge tenure NA
Subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts

Political parties and leaders:
Afek Tounes [Emna MINF]
Alliance for Tunisia (a coalition of Tunisia's Call [Beji Caid ESSEBSI], Republican Party [Maya JRIBI and Najib CHBBI],Democratic Path [Ahmed BRAHIM])
al-Nahda (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
Congress Party for the Republic or CPR [Moncef MARZOUKI]
Democratic Forum for Labor and Liberties or FDTL (Ettakatol) [Mustapha Ben JAAFAR]
Democratic Modernist Pole or PDM (a coalition)
Democratic Socialist Movement or MDS
Et-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]
Green Party for Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]
Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]
Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]
Popular Petition (Aridha Chaabia) [Hachemi HAMDI]
Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]
Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [Maya JERIBI]
The Initiative [Kamel MORJANE] (formerly the Constitutional Democratic Rally or RCD)
Tunisian Workers' Communist Party or PCOT [Hamma HAMMAMI]
Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
18 October Group [collective leadership]
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]

International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kais DARRAGI
Chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Jake WALLES
Embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 963-263

National symbol(s):
encircled red star and crescent

National anthem:
Name: "Humat Al Hima" (Defenders of the Homeland)

Lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates

Economy

Economy - overview:
Tunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges during the country's ongoing political transition. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country''s economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia''s main economic partner, the European Union. Tunisia''s liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President (1987-2011) Zine el Abidine BEN ALI continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance and unemployment rose among the country''s growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia''s economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply. As the economy recovers, Tunisia''s government faces challenges reassuring businesses and investors, bringing budget and current account deficits under control, shoring up the country''s financial system, bringing down high unemployment, and reducing economic disparities between the more developed coastal region and the impoverished interior.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$107.1 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 70
$103.4 billion (2011 est.)
$105.4 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$45.61 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95
-1.9% (2011 est.)
3.1% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,900 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120
$9,700 (2011 est.)
$10,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
22.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61
23.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
26.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 66.6%
Government consumption: 19%
Investment in fixed capital: 22.3%
Investment in inventories: 0%
Exports of goods and services: 49.4%
Imports of goods and services: -57.3%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 8.9%
Industry: 29.6%
Services: 61.5% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products

Industries:
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143

Labor force:
3.914 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 92

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 18.3%
Industry: 31.9%
Services: 49.8% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:
17.4% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 154
19% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
3.8% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.3%
Highest 10%: 31.5% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40 (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 61
41.7 (1995 est.)

Budget:
Revenues: $11.88 billion
Expenditures: $13.08 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
26.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 101

Public debt:
46.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
44.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 155
3.5% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5.75% (31 December 2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7.31% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132
6.76% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$13.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$13.11 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$31.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 75
$29.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$36.09 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
$34.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$9.662 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 72
$10.68 billion (31 December 2010)
$9.12 billion (31 December 2009)

Current account balance:
-$3.57 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 152
-$3.331 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$17.02 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76
$17.88 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment

Exports - partners:
France 26.3%, Italy 16%, Germany 9.4%, Libya 7.9%, US 4.3% (2012)

Imports:
$23.32 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71
$22.62 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
France 20.2%, Italy 16.9%, Germany 7.5%, China 6.1%, Spain 5.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.36 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77
$7.457 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$25.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 78
$22.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$33.01 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58
$31.84 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$285 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 83
$285 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Tunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
1.5619 (2012 est.)
1.4078 (2011 est.)
1.4314 (2010 est.)
1.3503 (2009)
1.211 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
14.76 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84

Electricity - consumption:
12.75 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Electricity - exports:
81 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - imports:
122 million kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
3.648 million kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 81

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
96.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 188

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
1.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Crude oil - production:
70,480 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Crude oil - exports:
65,960 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42

Crude oil - imports:
24,580 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Crude oil - proved reserves:
425 million bbl (1 January 2012 es)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Refined petroleum products - production:
36,670 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
88,380 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Refined petroleum products - exports:
15,270 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Refined petroleum products - imports:
74,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - production:
2.03 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 56

Natural gas - consumption:
3.28 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Natural gas - imports:
1.25 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - proved reserves:
65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 62

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
18.72 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.218 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 69

Telephones - mobile cellular:
12.388 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Telephone system:
General assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
Domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; a third mobile, fixed, and ISP operator was licensed in 2009 and began offering services in 2010; expansion of mobile-cellular services to include multimedia messaging and e-mail and Internet to mobile phone services also leading to a surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 125 telephones per 100 persons
International: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2011)

Broadcast media:
broadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)

Internet country code:
.tn

Internet hosts:
576 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Internet users:
3.5 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 60

Transportation

Airports:
29 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 118

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 15
Over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m:
8 (2013)

Pipelines:
condensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 2,165 km
Country comparison to the world: 68
Standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 19,232 km
Country comparison to the world: 110
Paved: 12,655 km (includes 262 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 6,577 km (2006)

Merchant marine:
Total: 9
Country comparison to the world: 116
By type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira

Military

Military branches:
Tunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)

Military service age and obligation:
20-23 years of age for compulsory service, one year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,846,572
Females age 16-49: 2,952,180 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 2,397,716
Females age 16-49: 2,484,097 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 90,436
Female: 87,346 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 100

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia's increased number of street children, children working to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to human trafficking; Tunisian women recruited into Lebanon's entertainment industry are forced into prostitution on arrival and other Tunisian women are forced into prostitution in Jordan; some Tunisian girls employed in domestic work are held in conditions of forced labor
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Tunisia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government continues to maintain that human trafficking is not a widespread problem in Tunisia, which undermines awareness campaigns and does not differentiate human trafficking from migrant smuggling; prior commitments to enact draft anti-trafficking legislation were not fulfilled, and the government has not developed or implemented procedures to identify proactively trafficking victims; the government has assisted an unidentified number of trafficking victims in its shelters for vulnerable groups (2013)

Flag of Tunisia



Flag description:
red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire