Introduction

Africa :: Uganda

Background:
The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics.

Geography

Location:
East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references:
Africa

Area:
Total: 241,038 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 81
Land: 197,100 sq km
Water: 43,938 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
Total: 2,698 km
Border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, South Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Climate:
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain:
mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
Highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Land use:
Arable land: 27.94%
Permanent crops: 9.11%
Other: 62.95% (2011)

Irrigated land:
144.2 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
66 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 0.32 cu km/yr (41%/16%/43%)
Per capita: 12.31 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Ugandan(s)
Adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups:
Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)

Languages:
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

Religions:
Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)

Population:
34,758,809 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48.9% (male 8,467,172/female 8,519,723)
15-24 years: 21.2% (male 3,658,564/female 3,707,462)
25-54 years: 25.5% (male 4,431,852/female 4,432,393)
55-64 years: 2.3% (male 383,364/female 427,512)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 323,508/female 407,259) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 103.3 %
Youth dependency ratio: 98.4 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
Potential support ratio: 20.3 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 15.5 years
Male: 15.4 years
Female: 15.5 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
3.32% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 5

Birth rate:
44.5 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 3

Death rate:
11.26 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 35

Net migration rate:
-0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110

Urbanization:
Urban population: 15.6% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 5.74% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
KAMPALA (capital) 1.535 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.9
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
310 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 62.47 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 22
Male: 72 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 52.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 53.98 years
Country comparison to the world: 208
Male: 52.65 years
Female: 55.35 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.06 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 4

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
30% (2011)

Health expenditures:
9% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 45

Physicians density:
0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density:
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 72% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 28% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 34% of population
total: 34% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 66% of population
total: 66% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
6.5% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.2 million (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
64,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 8

Major infectious diseases:
Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.3% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 167

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
16.4% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 46

Education expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 134

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 73.2%
Male: 82.6%
Female: 64.6% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2009)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Total number: 117,266
Percentage: 25 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 working in the (2010 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Total: 5.4% (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 131

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
Conventional short form: Uganda

Government type:
republic

Capital:
Name: Kampala
Geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitoma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo

Independence:
9 October 1962 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution:
8 October 1995; amended 2005
note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
Elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (375 seats; 238 members elected by popular vote, 112 women directly elected, 25 nominated by legally established special interest groups [army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], additional ex-officio members may be nominated by the president; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 263, FDC 34, DP 12, UPC 10, UPDF 10, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 43, vacant 1; note - UPDF is the Uganda People's Defense Force

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and 5 justices)
Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and with approval of the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 10 High Court Circuits and 7 High Court Divisions); Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts

Political parties and leaders:
Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Muntu MUGISHA]
Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups)
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]
Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Olara OTUNNU]

note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA
Chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Scott H. DELISI
Embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
Mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
Telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794

National symbol(s):
grey crowned crane

National anthem:
Name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
Lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Rising food and fuel prices in 2011 led to protests. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda''s main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$51.27 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 96
$49.98 billion (2011 est.)
$46.86 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$21 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.6% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119
6.7% (2011 est.)
5.6% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,400 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 206
$1,400 (2011 est.)
$1,400 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
14.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103
13% of GDP (2011 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 86.3%
Government consumption: 8.7%
Investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
Investment in inventories: 0.2%
Exports of goods and services: 21.2%
Imports of goods and services: -41%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 24.2%
Industry: 26.5%
Services: 49.3% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

Industries:
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Labor force:
16.49 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 38

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 82%
Industry: 5%
Services: 13% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
NA%

Population below poverty line:
24.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.4%
Highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
44.3 (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 46
45.7 (2002)

Budget:
Revenues: $3.102 billion
Expenditures: $3.705 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 113

Public debt:
27.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 119
27.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 210
18.7% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
9.65% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
26.16% (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15
21.83% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.015 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 123
$1.831 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$4.162 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132
$4.058 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$3.042 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 130
$2.927 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 99
$1.788 billion (31 December 2010)
$3.745 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
-$2.28 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 141
-$1.631 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$2.804 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131
$2.519 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Exports - partners:
Kenya 12.8%, Rwanda 10.7%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.7%, Netherlands 5.7%, Germany 5.2%, Italy 4.1% (2012)

Imports:
$5.187 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 127
$4.997 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports - partners:
Kenya 16.6%, UAE 14.5%, China 12.3%, India 11.3%, South Africa 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.169 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107
$2.617 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
note: excludes gold

Debt - external:
$4.514 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124
$3.858 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
2,505.6 (2012 est.)
2,522.8 (2011 est.)
2,177.6 (2010 est.)
2,030 (2009)
1,658.1 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
2.445 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 132

Electricity - consumption:
2.217 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - exports:
75 million kWh (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - imports:
29 million kWh (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
529,000 kW (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
37.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 192

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
59.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
2.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 133

Crude oil - proved reserves:
1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 41

Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
16,930 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 139

Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

Refined petroleum products - imports:
23,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 200

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 201

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 196

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 140

Natural gas - proved reserves:
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 79

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
2.014 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 149

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
464,800 (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 103

Telephones - mobile cellular:
16.697 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 53

Telephone system:
General assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
Domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 per 100 persons in 2010
International: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania (2011)

Broadcast media:
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)

Internet country code:
.ug

Internet hosts:
32,683 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 106

Internet users:
3.2 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Transportation

Airports:
47 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 93

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 5
Over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 42
Over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
Under 914 m:
7 (2013)

Railways:
Total: 1,244 km
Country comparison to the world: 83
Narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 70,746 km
Country comparison to the world: 68
Paved: 16,272 km
Unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)

Waterways:
(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)

Ports and terminals:
Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Military

Military branches:
Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 7,249,271
Females age 16-49: 7,025,439 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 4,313,068
Females age 16-49: 4,200,901 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 423,923
Female: 420,236 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.8% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Refugees (country of origin): 127,021 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 14,684 (Rwanda); 11,135 (South Sudan); 10,728 (Burundi); 7,910 (Sudan) (2012); 18,253 (Somalia) (2013)
IDPs: 30,000 (displacement in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions) (2011)

Flag of Uganda



Flag description:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK