World Factbook

Uzbekistan

Introduction

Central Asia :: Uzbekistan

Background:
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Geography

Location:
Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references:
Asia

Area:
Total: 447,400 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 57
Land: 425,400 sq km
Water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
Total: 6,221 km
Border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline:
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims:
none (doubly landlocked)

Climate:
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
Highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:
Arable land: 9.61%
Permanent crops: 0.8%
Other: 89.58% (2011)

Irrigated land:
41,980 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources:
48.87 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 56 cu km/yr (7%/3%/90%)
Per capita: 2,113 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
NA

Environment - current issues:
shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People and Society

Nationality:
Noun: Uzbekistani
Adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups:
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Languages:
Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions:
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Population:
28,661,637 (July 2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 44

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.3% (male 3,718,802/female 3,539,436)
15-24 years: 21.1% (male 3,062,438/female 2,990,299)
25-54 years: 42.5% (male 6,043,922/female 6,128,173)
55-64 years: 6.4% (male 861,590/female 965,635)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 576,908/female 774,434) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
Total dependency ratio: 49 %
Youth dependency ratio: 42.6 %
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
Potential support ratio: 15.7 (2013)

Median age:
Total: 26.6 years
Male: 26.1 years
Female: 27.2 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.94% (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 122

Birth rate:
17.2 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 111

Death rate:
5.29 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 180

Net migration rate:
-2.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171

Urbanization:
Urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 1.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
TASHKENT (capital) 2.201 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.8 (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
28 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Infant mortality rate:
Total: 20.51 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 91
Male: 24.32 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 16.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Total population: 73.03 years
Country comparison to the world: 125
Male: 70 years
Female: 76.25 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 150

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
64.9% (2006)

Health expenditures:
5.3% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 127

Physicians density:
2.62 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density:
4.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
Improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 81% of population
total: 87% of population
Unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 19% of population
total: 13% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
Improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 138

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
28,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 82

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
15.1% (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 119

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
4.4% (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.4%
Male: 99.6%
Female: 99.2% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2011)

Government

Country name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
Conventional short form: Uzbekistan
Local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
Local short form: Ozbekiston
Former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Capital:
Name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
Geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence:
1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution:
adopted 8 December 1992; amended in 2002 and 2011

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)
Head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to seven years and changed back to five years in 2011); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in early 2015); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
Election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik Palatasi) (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan)
Elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014)
Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Islom KARIMOV

Judicial branch:
Highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment
Subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders:
Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIXONOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Ismoil SAIFNAZAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Muhamadyusuf TESHABOYEV]
National Rebirth Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish) [Akhtam TURSUNOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Lativ GULYAMOV] (formerly Communist Party)

Political pressure groups and leaders:
there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan

International organization participation:
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV
Chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
Chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL
Embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

National symbol(s):
khumo (mythical bird)

National anthem:
Name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)

Lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy

Economy - overview:
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, primarily natural gas, provided 18.5% of foreign exchange earnings in 2011 and 35.1% in the first nine months of 2012. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered around cotton, although production has dropped by 35% since 1991. Uzbekistan is now the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. The country is aggressively addressing international criticism for the use of child labor in its cotton harvest. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. According to official statistics, Uzbekistan has posted GDP growth of over 8% per year for several years, driven primarily by state-led investments and a favorable export environment. Growth may slip in 2013 as a result of lower export prices due to the continuing European recession. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani tax laws and have frozen their assets, with several new expropriations in 2012. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering attractive financing and tax advantages, and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry, including the opening of a powertrain manufacturing facility in Tashkent in November 2011. Uzbekistan has seen few effects from the global economic downturn, primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$106.4 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71
$98.54 billion (2011 est.)
$90.98 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$51.17 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
8.2% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 18
8.3% (2011 est.)
8.5% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,600 (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171
$3,400 (2011 est.)
$3,200 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP - composition, by end use:
Household consumption: 55.7%
Government consumption: 16.6%
Investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
Investment in inventories: 4.9%
Exports of goods and services: 27.2%
Imports of goods and services: -27.9%
(2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Agriculture: 18.5%
Industry: 36.4%
Services: 45.1% (2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Industries:
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:
7.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24

Labor force:
16.74 million (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 37

Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 25.9%
Industry: 13.2%
Services: 60.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
4.8% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
5% (2011 est.)
note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed

Population below poverty line:
17% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 2.8%
Highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2003)
Country comparison to the world: 79
44.7 (1998)

Budget:
Revenues: $17.08 billion
Expenditures: $16.86 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
33.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 39

Public debt:
8.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 143
9.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.7% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 207
12.8% (2011 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012

Stock of narrow money:
$5.841 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 93
$5.087 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$8.31 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 112
$7.197 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$7.064 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 109
$6.523 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2012)
Country comparison to the world: 109
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)

Current account balance:
$3.284 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33
$4.52 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$16.65 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 77
$15.03 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Exports - partners:
China 18.5%, Kazakhstan 14.6%, Turkey 13.8%, Russia 12.8%, Ukraine 12.5%, Bangladesh 8.9% (2012)

Imports:
$15.53 billion (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87
$10.5 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Imports - partners:
Russia 20.6%, China 16.5%, South Korea 16.3%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Germany 4.6%, Turkey 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$16 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63
$15 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$8.072 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 105
$8.382 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:
Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
1,891.1 (2012 est.)
1,715.8 (2011 est.)
1,587.2 (2010 est.)
1,466.7 (2009)
1,317 (2008)

Energy

Electricity - production:
52.53 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49

Electricity - consumption:
42.9 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity - exports:
11.66 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 18

Electricity - imports:
11.58 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
12.4 million kW (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
85.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
14.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 104

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 197

Crude oil - production:
104,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 199

Crude oil - imports:
5,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 80

Crude oil - proved reserves:
594 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 47

Refined petroleum products - production:
90,690 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 76

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
137,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 71

Refined petroleum products - exports:
5,488 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

Refined petroleum products - imports:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 209

Natural gas - production:
62.9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - consumption:
46.8 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 17

Natural gas - exports:
13.4 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 142

Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 19

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
114.3 million Mt (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.928 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 59

Telephones - mobile cellular:
25.442 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 40

Telephone system:
General assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
Domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base reaching 25 million in 2011
International: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)

Broadcast media:
government controls media; 11 state-owned broadcasters - 7 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; about 15 privately owned radio broadcasters are affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media of Uzbekistan, a government sponsored NGO for private broadcast media

Internet country code:
.uz

Internet hosts:
56,075 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Internet users:
4.689 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 50

Transportation

Airports:
53 (2013)
Country comparison to the world: 89

Airports - with paved runways:
Total: 33
Over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
Total: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
Under 914 m:
18 (2013)

Pipelines:
gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)

Railways:
Total: 3,645 km
Country comparison to the world: 47
Broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
Total: 86,496 km
Country comparison to the world: 54
Paved: 75,511 km
Unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)

Waterways:
1,100 km (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 63

Ports and terminals:
Termiz (Amu Darya)

Military

Military branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
Males age 16-49: 7,887,292
Females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Males age 16-49: 6,566,118
Females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Male: 306,404
Female: 295,456 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 34

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: undetermined (government forcibly relocated an estimated 3,400 people from villages near the Tajikistan border in 2000-2001; no new data is available) (2012)

Trafficking in persons:
Current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; adults and children are victims of government-organized forced labor during Uzbekistan's annual cotton harvest; some Uzbekistani adults are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and, to a much lesser extent, Ukraine in domestic service, agriculture, and the construction and oil industries; Uzbekistani women and children, lured with fraudulent job offers, are sex trafficked to countries in Central Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia; small numbers of Tajikistani and Kyrgyzstani victims have been identified in Uzbekistan
Tier rating: Tier 3 - Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and because it is not deemed to be making significant efforts to do so, it was downgraded to Tier 3 after the maximum of two consecutive annual waivers; the government has identified an increased number of sex and transnational labor trafficking victims; for the first time a decree was implemented banning the forced labor of children under the age of 15 in the annual cotton harvest, but government-organized forced labor of adults and older children contines in the cotton and reportedly other sectors; Uzbekistan does not have a systematic process to proactively identify trafficking victims and refer them to protective services (2013)

Illicit drugs:
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

Flag of Uzbekistan



Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar