Georgia

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Introduction

Background

The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.Billionaire Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. At the time, these changes in leadership represented unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI remained prime minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. IVANISHVILI reemerged as Georgian Dream party chairman in April 2018. KVIRIKASHVILI resigned in June 2018 and was replaced by Mamuka BAKHTADZE. In September 2019, BAKHTADZE resigned and Giorgi GAKHARIA was named the country's new head of government, Georgia's fifth prime minister in seven years. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.

Geography

Location

Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Geographic coordinates

42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references

Asia

Area

total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Abkhazia and the breakaway region of South Ossetia, which consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti
country comparison to the world: 122

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,814 km
border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km

Coastline

310 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm

Climate

warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain

largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation

mean elevation: 1,432 m
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,193 m

Natural resources

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use

agricultural land: 35.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 5.8% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 1.8% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 27.9% (2011 est.)
forest: 39.4% (2011 est.)
other: 25.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

4,330 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest

Natural hazards

earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy water pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals; land and forest degradation; biodiversity loss; waste management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

note 1: strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

note 2: the world's four deepest caves are all in Georgia, including two that are the only known caves on earth deeper than 2,000 m: Krubera Cave at -2,197 m (-7,208 ft; reached in 2012) and Veryovkina Cave at -2,212 (-7,257 ft; reached in 2018)

People and Society

Population

4.003 million (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128

Nationality

noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups

Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)

Languages

Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1% (2014 est.)
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

Religions

Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.23%(male 469,163 /female 428,734)
15-24 years: 11.45%(male 299,362 /female 264,456)
25-54 years: 40.89%(male 984,275 /female 1,029,902)
55-64 years: 13.17%(male 289,337 /female 359,444)
65 years and over: 16.27%(male 314,467 /female 486,947) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 28.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 38.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 35.5 years
female: 41.1 years
country comparison to the world: 59

Population growth rate

0.01% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Birth rate

12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Death rate

10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Net migration rate

-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Population distribution

settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest

Urbanization

urban population: 59% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)
note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Major urban areas - population

1.077 million TBILISI (capital) (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.5 years (2014 est.)
note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Maternal mortality rate

25 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121

Infant mortality rate

total: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 99

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 72.5 years
female: 80.9 years
country comparison to the world: 84

Total fertility rate

1.76 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Contraceptive prevalence rate

53.4% (2010)
note: percent of women aged 15-44

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

8.4% (2016)

Physicians density

5.1 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

2.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 95.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 75.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 86.3% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 4.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 13.7% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.4% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

9,400 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2018 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 86

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1.1% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 121

Education expenditures

3.8% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 111

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 30.5%
male: 26.3%
female: 32.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation "gurgan" meaning "Land of the Wolves"; the native name "Sak'art'velo" means "Land of the Kartvelians" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Tbilisi
geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name in Georgian means "warm place," referring to the numerous sulfuric hot springs in the area

Administrative divisions

9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika) regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti; city: Tbilisi; autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
note: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses note: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia

Independence

9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution

history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995
amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2018 (2019)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)
head of government: Prime Minister Giorgi GAKHARIA (since 8 September 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president

note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term
election results: Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Giorgi GAKHARIA approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 98-0

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 October and 30 October 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.7%, UNM 27.1%, Alliance of Patriots 5%, other 19.2%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 115, UNM 27, Alliance of Patriots 6, IWSG 1, independent 1; composition - men 126, women 24, percent of women 16%; note - European Georgia split from UNM in January 2017 taking 20 of 27 parliamentary seats; composition as of 1 July 2019: Georgian Dream 106, European Georgia 20, UNM 7, Alliance of Patriots 7, independent 10

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the High Council of Justice (a 14-member body consisting of the Supreme Court chairperson, common court judges, and appointees of the president of Georgia) and appointed by Parliament; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed 3 each by the president, by Parliament, and by the Supreme Court judges; judges appointed for 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
Democratic Movement-United Georgia [Nino BURJANADZE]
Development Movement [Davit USPASHVILI]
European Georgia [Davit BAKRADZE] (split from UNM)
For Justice Party [Eka BESELIA]
Free Democrats or FD [Shalva SHAVGULIDZE]
Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Bidzina IVANISHVILI]
Girchi (Pinecone) [Zurab JAPARIDZE]
Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
New Georgia [Giorgi VASHADZE]
Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
United National Movement or UNM [Grigol VASHADZE]

International organization participation

ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador David BAKRADZE (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elizabeth ROOD (since 13 May 2019)
telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
embassy: 29 Georgian-American Friendship Avenue, Didi Dighomi, Tbilisi 0131
mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10

Flag description

white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century

National symbol(s)

Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)
note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted

Economy

Economy - overview

Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its electricity needs.Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment, remittances, and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sank to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in the period 2010-17, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment remains persistently high.The country is pinning its hopes for faster growth on a continued effort to build up infrastructure, enhance support for entrepreneurship, simplify regulations, and improve professional education, in order to attract foreign investment and boost employment, with a focus on transportation projects, tourism, hydropower, and agriculture. Georgia had historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia concluded an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. In 2017, Georgia signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China as part of Tbilisi’s efforts to diversify its economic ties. Georgia is seeking to develop its Black Sea ports to further facilitate East-West trade.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$39.85 billion (2017 est.)
$37.96 billion (2016 est.)
$36.91 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 118

GDP (official exchange rate)

$15.16 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

5% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$10,700 (2017 est.)
$10,300 (2016 est.)
$9,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 138

Gross national saving

23% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 62.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 17.1% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 29.5% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 2.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 50.4% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -62.2% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 23.7% (2017 est.)
services: 67.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock

Industries

steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate

6.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Labor force

1.998 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 55.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA% (2017 est.)
11.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156

Population below poverty line

9.2% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

40.1 (2014)
46 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 66

Budget

revenues: 4.352 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.925 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Public debt

44.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
44.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intragovernmental debt or social funds
country comparison to the world: 116

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Central bank discount rate

7% (23 September 2015)
6.5% (7)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia
country comparison to the world: 49

Commercial bank prime lending rate

11.49% (31 December 2017 est.)
12.62% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Stock of narrow money

$2.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Stock of broad money

$2.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

Stock of domestic credit

$8.961 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.753 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Market value of publicly traded shares

$1.155 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$795.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Current account balance

-$1.348 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.84 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151

Exports

$3.566 billion (2017 est.)
$2.831 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Exports - partners

Russia 14.5%, Azerbaijan 10%, Turkey 7.9%, Armenia 7.7%, China 7.6%, Bulgaria 6.6%, Ukraine 4.6%, US 4.5% (2017)

Exports - commodities

vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores

Imports

$7.415 billion (2017 est.)
$6.747 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Imports - commodities

fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners

Turkey 17.2%, Russia 9.9%, China 9.2%, Azerbaijan 7.6%, Ukraine 5.6%, Germany 5.4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.039 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.756 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Debt - external

$16.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$17.47 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$2.477 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.185 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Exchange rates

laris (GEL) per US dollar -
2.535 (2017 est.)
2.3668 (2016 est.)
2.3668 (2015 est.)
2.2694 (2014 est.)
1.7657 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

13.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - consumption

12.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - exports

560 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity - imports

1.329 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Electricity - installed generating capacity

4.641 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Electricity - from fossil fuels

35% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

65% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187

Crude oil - production

400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Crude oil - exports

3,006 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Crude oil - imports

2,660 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Crude oil - proved reserves

35 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Refined petroleum products - production

247 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Refined petroleum products - consumption

27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Refined petroleum products - exports

2,052 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Refined petroleum products - imports

28,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Natural gas - production

7.363 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Natural gas - consumption

2.294 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Natural gas - imports

2.294 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Natural gas - proved reserves

8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

9.912 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 713,826
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 5,730,625
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Telephone system

general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country; broadband subscribers steadily increasing; with the recent investment in infrastructure customers are moving from copper to fiber networks (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100, cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 116 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi (2018)
international: country code - 995; landing points for the Georgia-Russia, Diamond Link Global, and Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia, Romania and Bulgaria; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2019)

Broadcast media

The Tbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2 as well as the Batumi-based Adjara TV, and the State Budget funds all three; there are also a number of independent commercial television broadcasters, such as Imedi, Rustavi 2, Pirveli TV, Maestro, Kavkasia, Georgian Dream Studios (GDS), Obiektivi, and a small Russian language operator TOK TV; Tabula and Post TV are web-based television outlets; all of these broadcasters and web-based television outlets, except GDS, carry the news; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based television station called Unanimity; there are 26 regional television broadcasters across Georgia that are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters and/or the Alliance of Georgian Broadcasters; the broadcaster organizations seek to strengthen the regional media's capacities and distribution of regional products: a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations (2019)

Internet country code

.ge

Internet users

total: 2,464,107
percent of population: 50% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 770,113
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Military and Security

Military expenditures

2.3% of GDP (2019)
2.1% of GDP (2018)
2% of GDP (2017)
2.23% of GDP (2016)
2.34% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 38

Military and security forces

Georgian Defense Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces (2019)
note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense

Military service age and obligation

18 to 27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2017)

Military - note

Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War (2019)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 13 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 232,263 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 185,040mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

4L (2016)

Airports

22 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 135

Airports - with paved runways

total: 18 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
under 914 m: 2 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 4 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Heliports

2 (2013)

Pipelines

1596 km gas, 1175 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 1,363 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 37 km0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
broad gauge: 1,326 km1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 84

Roadways

total: 20,295 km (2018)
country comparison to the world: 111

Merchant marine

total: 82
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 24, oil tanker 2, other 55 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 96

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 293,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2018)
stateless persons: 566 (2018)

Illicit drugs

limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

Flag of Georgia

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Georgiais the Relief Central Word of the day!