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As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC (now the EU) and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.



Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates

51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references



total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km
country comparison to the world: 64

Area - comparative

three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 3,714 km
border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km


2,389 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind


lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south


mean elevation: 263 m
lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 48% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.1% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 0.6% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 13.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 31.8% (2011 est.)
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

6,500 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastward

People and Society


80,457,737 (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


noun: German(s)
adjective: German

Ethnic groups

German 87.2%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, other 9% (2017 est.)

note:   data represent population by nationality


German (official)
note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Roman Catholic 27.7%, Protestant 25.5%, Muslim 5.1%, Orthodox 1.9%, other Christian 1.1%, other .9%, none 37.8% (2018 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 12.83%(male 5,299,798 /female 5,024,184)
15-24 years: 9.98%(male 4,092,901 /female 3,933,997)
25-54 years: 39.87%(male 16,181,931 /female 15,896,528)
55-64 years: 14.96%(male 5,989,111 /female 6,047,449)
65 years and over: 22.36%(male 7,930,590 /female 10,061,248) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

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Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 32.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 47.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 46.2 years
female: 48.5 years
country comparison to the world: 3

Population growth rate

-0.17% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208

Birth rate

8.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Death rate

11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Net migration rate

1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Population distribution

most populous country in Europe; a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations, particularly in the far western part of the industrial state of North Rhine-Westphalia


urban population: 77.4% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 0.27% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

3.557 million BERLIN (capital), 1.791 million Hamburg, 1.521 million Munich, 1.108 million Cologne (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.4 years (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 202

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 78.6 years
female: 83.4 years
country comparison to the world: 37

Total fertility rate

1.46 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204

Contraceptive prevalence rate

80.3% (2011)
note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

11.1% (2016)

Physicians density

4.21 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

8.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

87,000 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2018 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 79

Education expenditures

4.8% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 72

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 6.8%
male: 7.6%
female: 5.8% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158


Country name

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Reich
etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"

Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the origin of the name is unclear but may be related to the old West Slavic (Polabian) word "berl" or "birl," meaning "swamp"

Administrative divisions

16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Bremen calls itself a Free Hanseatic City (Freie Hansestadt) and Hamburg considers itself a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)


18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)

National holiday

German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)


history: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10-23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years


18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections

Executive branch

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2022); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor (Angela Merkel since 2005) and appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 14 March 2018 (next to be held after the Bundestag elections in 2021)
election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 364 to 315

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Bundesrat - none; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021); most postwar German governments have been coalitions
election results:
Bundesrat - composition - men 50, women 19, percent of women 27.5%
Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.7%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 152, AfD 91, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67; composition - men 490, women 219, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.5%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges, including the court president, vice presidents, presiding judges, other judges and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels); Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated states and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 federated states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance '90/Greens [Annalena BAERBOCK and Robert HABECK]
Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND and Joerg MEUTHEN]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Annegret KRAMP-KARRENBAUER]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
The Left or Die Linke [Katja KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Andrea NAHLES]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Emily Margarethe HABER (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Richard GRENELL (since 8 May 2018)
telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
embassy: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany


Economy - overview

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment. Germany benefits from a highly skilled labor force, but, like its Western European neighbors, faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong economic growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017.Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012.Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Domestic consumption, investment, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth in 2018, and the country’s budget and trade surpluses are likely to remain high.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.199 trillion (2017 est.)
$4.099 trillion (2016 est.)
$4.012 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 5

GDP (official exchange rate)

$3.701 trillion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

2.5% (2017 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$50,800 (2017 est.)
$49,800 (2016 est.)
$49,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 27

Gross national saving

28% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 53.1% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 20.4% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 47.3% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.)
industry: 30.7% (2017 est.)
services: 68.6% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry


among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Industrial production growth rate

3.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Labor force

45.9 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.2%
services: 74.3% (2016)

Unemployment rate

3.8% (2017 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Population below poverty line

16.7% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

27 (2006)
30 (1994)
country comparison to the world: 145


revenues: 1.665 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.619 trillion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

45% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Public debt

63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
country comparison to the world: 61

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.7% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Central bank discount rate

0% (31 December 2017)
0% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 154

Commercial bank prime lending rate

1.67% (31 December 2017 est.)
1.78% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187

Stock of narrow money

$2.453 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 4

Stock of broad money

$2.453 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.016 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Stock of domestic credit

$5.033 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$4.433 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Market value of publicly traded shares

$1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Current account balance

$291 billion (2017 est.)
$297.5 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1


$1.434 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Exports - partners

US 8.8%, France 8.2%, China 6.8%, Netherlands 6.7%, UK 6.6%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 4.9%, Poland 4.7%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)

Exports - commodities

motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products


$1.135 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Imports - commodities

machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Imports - partners

Netherlands 13.8%, China 7%, France 6.6%, Belgium 5.9%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 5.4%, Czechia 4.8%, US 4.5%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$200.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Debt - external

$5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$1.653 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$2.298 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

612.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - consumption

536.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Electricity - exports

78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - imports

28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - installed generating capacity

208.5 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Electricity - from fossil fuels

41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Electricity - from other renewable sources

52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Crude oil - production

41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Crude oil - exports

6,569 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Crude oil - imports

1.836 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Crude oil - proved reserves

129.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Refined petroleum products - production

2.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Refined petroleum products - consumption

2.46 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Refined petroleum products - exports

494,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Refined petroleum products - imports

883,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - production

7.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

Natural gas - consumption

93.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - exports

34.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Natural gas - imports

119.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - proved reserves

39.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

847.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 44.4 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 106 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Telephone system

general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part; universal 3G available infrastructure and LTE networks; penetration in broadband and mobile sectors average for region (2018)
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 55 per 100 for fixed-line and 132 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 49; landing points for SeaMeWe-3, TAT-14, AC-1, CONTACT-3, Fehmarn Balt, C-Lion1, GC1, GlobalConnect-KPN, and Germany-Denmark 2 & 3 - submarine cables to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2019)

Broadcast media

a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; 70 national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 72,365,643
percent of population: 89.6% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 33.217 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Military and Security

Military expenditures

1.38% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.24% of GDP (2018)
1.23% of GDP (2017)
1.19% of GDP (2016)
1.18% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 84

Military and security forces

Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), includes air defense), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2019)

Military service age and obligation

17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 20 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1,113 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,540,886 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,985,007,915mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

D (2016)


539 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 13

Airports - with paved runways

total: 318 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 70 (2017)
under 914 m: 125 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 221 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)
under 914 m: 185 (2013)


23 (2013)


37 km condensate, 26985 km gas, 2400 km oil, 4479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)


total: 33,590 km (2017)
standard gauge: 33,331 km1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified) (2015)
narrow gauge: 220 km1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified)
15 km 0.900-m gauge, 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2015)
country comparison to the world: 7


total: 625,000 km (2017)
paved: 625,000 km(includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017)
note: includes local roads
country comparison to the world: 12


7,467 km(Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 18

Merchant marine

total: 629
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 107, general cargo 92, oil tanker 36, other 393 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 33

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock
oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,510,000), Hamburg (8,860,000) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
river port(s): Bremen (Weser)
North Sea - Wilhelmshaven Bremerhaven (Geeste) Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine) Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe) Lubeck (Wakenitz)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 532,065 (Syria), 136,463 (Iraq), 126,018 (Afghanistan), 55,334 (Eritrea), 41,150 (Iran), 24,036 (Turkey), 23,581 (Somalia), 9,155 (Serbia and Kosovo), 8,119 (Russia), 7,454 (Pakistan), 6,453 (Nigeria) (2018)
stateless persons: 14,779 (2018)

Illicit drugs

source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center

Flag of Germany

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