Honduras

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Introduction

Background

Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.

Geography

Location

Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km
country comparison to the world: 104

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries

total: 1,575 km
border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km

Coastline

823 km(Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm
contiguous zone: 24nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm

Climate

subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain

mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Elevation

mean elevation: 684 m
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources

timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 28.8% (2011 est.)
arable land: 9.1% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 4% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 15.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 45.3% (2011 est.)
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area

Natural hazards

frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast

Environment - current issues

urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast

People and Society

Population

9,182,766 (July 2018 est.)
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
country comparison to the world: 95

Nationality

noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran

Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%

Languages

Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects

Religions

Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 41%, atheist 1%, other 2%, none 9% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has one of the world's highest murder rates. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.37%(male 1,518,526 /female 1,453,891)
15-24 years: 20.88%(male 977,899 /female 939,490)
25-54 years: 37.07%(male 1,724,257 /female 1,679,694)
55-64 years: 5.27%(male 229,066 /female 255,169)
65 years and over: 4.41%(male 174,771 /female 230,003) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

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Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 59.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 52.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 23.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 23 years
female: 23.7 years
country comparison to the world: 173

Population growth rate

1.56% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Birth rate

22 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Death rate

5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Net migration rate

-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142

Population distribution

most residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area

Urbanization

urban population: 57.7% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.75% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.403 million TEGUCIGALPA (capital), 876,000 San Pedro Sula (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.4 years (2011/12 est.)
note: median age a first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

65 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Infant mortality rate

total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 93

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 69.6 years
female: 73 years
country comparison to the world: 152

Total fertility rate

2.61 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Contraceptive prevalence rate

73.2% (2011/12)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

8.4% (2016)

Physicians density

0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 86.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 77.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.6% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 22.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.3% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

23,000 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<1000 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 89

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

7.1% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 73

Education expenditures

6% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 32

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89%
female: 88.9% (2016)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 11 years (2014)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 7.9%
male: 5.6%
female: 12.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
etymology: the name means "depths" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Tegucigalpa; note - article eight of the Honduran constitution states that the twin cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela, jointly, constitute the capital of the Republic of Honduras; however, virtually all governmental institutions are on the Tegucigalpa side, which in practical terms makes Tegucigalpa the capital
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 

Administrative divisions

18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence

15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982
amendments: proposed by the National Congress with at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of Congress in its next annual session; constitutional articles, such as the form of government, national sovereignty, the presidential term, and the procedure for amending the constitution, cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2015; note - the 2015 amendment struck down several constitutional articles on presidential term limits (2018)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Maria RIVERA, and Olga ALVARADO (since 26 January 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Maria RIVERA, and Olga ALVARADO (since 26 January 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term; election last held on 26 November 2017 (next to be held in November 2021); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits
election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alianza de Oposicion conta la Dictadura) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other .9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 November 2017 (next to be held on 28 November 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 47.7%, LIBRE 23.4%, PL 20.3%, AP 3.1%, PINU 3.1%, DC 0.8%, PAC 0.8%, UD 0.8%; seats by party - PNH 61, LIBRE 30, PL 26, AP 4, PINU 4, DC 1, PAC 1, UD 1; composition - men 101, women 27, percent of women 21.1%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges, including the court president, and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, constitutional, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials and other government and non-government officials nominated by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders

Alliance against the Dictatorship or Alianza de Oposicion conta la Dictadura [Salvador NASRALLA] (electoral coalition)
Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Marlene ALVARENGA]
Christian Democratic Party or DC [Lucas AGUILERA]
Democratic Unification Party or UD [Alfonso DIAZ]
Freedom and Refoundation Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
Honduran Patriotic Alliance or AP [Romeo VASQUEZ Velasquez]
Liberal Party or PL [Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano]
National Party of Honduras or PNH [Reinaldo SANCHEZ Rivera]
Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Guillermo VALLE]

International organization participation

BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Marlon Ramsses TABORA Munoz (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: Suite 700, 1250 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Colleen A. HOEY (since August 2019)
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa M.D.C.
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
FAX: [504] 2236-9037

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of cerulean blue (top), white, and cerulean blue, with five cerulean, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people
note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING
note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung

Economy

Economy - overview

Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing.Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 15% of foreign direct investment is from US firms.The economy registered modest economic growth of 3.1%-4.0% from 2010 to 2017, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. In 2017, Honduras faced rising public debt, but its economy has performed better than expected due to low oil prices and improved investor confidence. Honduras signed a three-year standby arrangement with the IMF in December 2014, aimed at easing Honduras’s poor fiscal position.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$46.3 billion (2017 est.)
$44.18 billion (2016 est.)
$42.58 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 112

GDP (official exchange rate)

$22.98 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

4.8% (2017 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$5,600 (2017 est.)
$5,400 (2016 est.)
$5,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 170

Gross national saving

22.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 77.7% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 13.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 43.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -58.9% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)
services: 57% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster, sugar, oriental vegetables

Industries

sugar processing, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars

Industrial production growth rate

4.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Labor force

3.735 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate

5.6% (2017 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
country comparison to the world: 82

Population below poverty line

29.6% (2014)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

47.1 (2014)
45.7 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26

Budget

revenues: 4.658 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 5.283 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Public debt

39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
38.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.9% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152

Central bank discount rate

6.25% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 66

Commercial bank prime lending rate

19.26% (31 December 2017 est.)
19.33% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Stock of narrow money

$2.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.455 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Stock of broad money

$2.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.455 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Stock of domestic credit

$13.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$12.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103

Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

Current account balance

-$380 million (2017 est.)
-$587 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Exports

$8.675 billion (2017 est.)
$7.841 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Exports - partners

US 34.5%, Germany 8.9%, Belgium 7.7%, El Salvador 7.3%, Netherlands 7.2%, Guatemala 5.2%, Nicaragua 4.8% (2017)

Exports - commodities

coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber

Imports

$11.32 billion (2017 est.)
$10.56 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Imports - commodities

communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

US 40.3%, Guatemala 10.5%, China 8.5%, Mexico 6.2%, El Salvador 5.7%, Panama 4.4%, Costa Rica 4.2% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.708 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.814 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Debt - external

$8.625 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$7.852 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118

Exchange rates

lempiras (HNL) per US dollar -
23.74 (2017 est.)
22.995 (2016 est.)
22.995 (2015 est.)
22.098 (2014 est.)
21.137 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 2 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 87.6% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 100% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 72.2% (2016)

Electricity - production

8.501 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - consumption

7.22 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - exports

536 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Electricity - imports

195 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - installed generating capacity

2.546 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - from fossil fuels

40% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

25% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Electricity - from other renewable sources

34% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Refined petroleum products - consumption

59,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Refined petroleum products - exports

12,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Refined petroleum products - imports

56,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

9.436 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 491,107
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 8,233,499
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

Telephone system

general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership; demand for broadband increasing and some investment needed in network upgrades; mobile penetration below regional average (2018)
domestic: private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity 5 per 100; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 91 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 504; landing points for both the ARCOS and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable systems that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)

Broadcast media

multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations

Internet country code

.hn

Internet users

total: 2,667,978
percent of population: 30% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 232,990
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Military and Security

Military expenditures

1.71% of GDP (2018)
1.74% of GDP (2017)
1.68% of GDP (2016)
1.68% of GDP (2015)
4.62% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 67

Military and security forces

Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Honduran Naval Force (FNH; includes marines), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH), Honduran Public Order Military Police (PMOP) (2019)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2018)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 251,149 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 502,372mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

HR (2016)

Airports

103 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 54

Airports - with paved runways

total: 13 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 90 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
under 914 m: 73 (2013)

Railways

total: 699 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 164 km1.067-m gauge (2014)
115 km 1.057-m gauge
420 km 0.914-m gauge
country comparison to the world: 101

Roadways

total: 14,742 km (2012)
paved: 3,367 km (2012)
unpaved: 11,375 km(1,543 km summer only) (2012)
note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry
country comparison to the world: 123

Waterways

465 km(most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 84

Merchant marine

total: 550
by type: container ship 1, general cargo 249, oil tanker 89, other 211 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 40

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 190,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2016)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity

Flag of Honduras

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