Mauritania

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Introduction

Background

Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and installed a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. AZIZ sustained injuries from an accidental shooting by his own troops in October 2012 but has continued to maintain his authority. He was reelected in 2014 to a second and final term as president (according to the present constitution). AZIZ will be replaced through elections scheduled for June 2019. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among three major groups: Arabic-speaking descendants of slaves (Haratines), Arabic-speaking "White Moors" (Beydane), and members of Sub-Saharan ethnic groups mostly originating in the Senegal River valley (Halpulaar, Soninke, and Wolof).Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) launched a series of attacks in Mauritania between 2005 and 2011, murdering American and foreign tourists and aid workers, attacking diplomatic and government facilities, and ambushing Mauritanian soldiers and gendarmes. A successful strategy against terrorism that combines dialogue with the terrorists and military actions has prevented the country from further terrorist attacks since 2011. However, AQIM and similar groups remain active in neighboring Mali and elsewhere in the Sahel region and continue to pose a threat to Mauritanians and foreign visitors.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates

20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references

Africa

Area

total: 1,030,700 sq km
land: 1,030,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 30

Area - comparative

slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico; about six times the size of Florida

Land boundaries

total: 5,002 km
border countries (4): Algeria 460 km, Mali 2236 km, Senegal 742 km, Western Sahara 1564 km

Coastline

754 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm
contiguous zone: 24nm
continental shelf: 200nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain

mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation

mean elevation: 276 m
lowest point: Sebkhet Te-n-Dghamcha -5 m
highest point: Kediet Ijill 915 m

Natural resources

iron ore, gypsum, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold, oil, fish

Land use

agricultural land: 38.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 0.4% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 38.1% (2011 est.)
forest: 0.2% (2011 est.)
other: 61.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

450 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

with most of the country being a desert, vast areas of the country, particularly in the central, northern, and eastern areas, are without sizeable population clusters; half the population lives in or around the coastal capital of Nouakchott; smaller clusters are found near the southern border with Mali and Senegal

Natural hazards

hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Senegal, which is the only perennial river; locust infestation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Mauritania is considered both a part of North Africa's Maghreb region and West Africa's Sahel region; most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country

People and Society

Population

3,840,429 (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Nationality

noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups

black Moors (Haratines - Arab-speaking slaves, former slaves, and their descendants of African origin, enslaved by white Moors) 40%, white Moors (of Arab-Berber descent, known as Beydane) 30%, sub-Saharan Mauritanians (non-Arabic speaking, largely resident in or originating from the Senegal River Valley, including Halpulaar, Fulani, Soninke, Wolof, and Bambara ethnic groups) 30%

Languages

Arabic (official and national), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French
note: the spoken Arabic in Mauritania differs considerably from the modern standard Arabic used for official written purposes or in the media; the Mauritanian dialect, which incorporates many Berber words, is referred to as Hassaniya

Religions

Muslim (official) 100%

Demographic profile

With a sustained total fertility rate of about 4 children per woman and almost 60% of the population under the age of 25, Mauritania's population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Mauritania's large youth cohort is vital to its development prospects, but available schooling does not adequately prepare students for the workplace. Girls continue to be underrepresented in the classroom, educational quality remains poor, and the dropout rate is high. The literacy rate is only about 50%, even though access to primary education has improved since the mid-2000s. Women's restricted access to education and discriminatory laws maintain gender inequality - worsened by early and forced marriages and female genital cutting.The denial of education to black Moors also helps to perpetuate slavery. Although Mauritania abolished slavery in 1981 (the last country in the world to do so) and made it a criminal offense in 2007, the millenniums-old practice persists largely because anti-slavery laws are rarely enforced and the custom is so ingrained.  According to a 2018 nongovernmental organization's report, a little more than 2% of Mauritania's population is enslaved, which includes individuals sujbected to forced labor and forced marriage, although many thousands of individuals who are legally free contend with discrimination, poor education, and a lack of identity papers and, therefore, live in de facto slavery.  The UN and international press outlets have claimed that up to 20% of Mauritania's population is enslaved, which would be the highest rate worldwide.Drought, poverty, and unemployment have driven outmigration from Mauritania since the 1970s. Early flows were directed toward other West African countries, including Senegal, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, and Gambia. The 1989 Mauritania-Senegal conflict forced thousands of black Mauritanians to take refuge in Senegal and pushed labor migrants toward the Gulf, Libya, and Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Mauritania has accepted migrants from neighboring countries to fill labor shortages since its independence in 1960 and more recently has received refugees escaping civil wars, including tens of thousands of Tuaregs who fled Mali in 2012.Mauritania was an important transit point for sub-Saharan migrants moving illegally to North Africa and Europe. In the mid-2000s, as border patrols increased in the Strait of Gibraltar, security increased around Spain's North African enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla), and Moroccan border controls intensified, illegal migration flows shifted from the Western Mediterranean to Spain's Canary Islands. In 2006, departure points moved southward along the West African coast from Morocco and Western Sahara to Mauritania's two key ports (Nouadhibou and the capital Nouakchott), and illegal migration to the Canaries peaked at almost 32,000. The numbers fell dramatically in the following years because of joint patrolling off the West African coast by Frontex (the EU's border protection agency), Spain, Mauritania, and Senegal; the expansion of Spain's border surveillance system; and the 2008 European economic downturn.

Age structure

0-14 years: 38.24%(male 737,570 /female 730,969)
15-24 years: 19.78%(male 372,070 /female 387,375)
25-54 years: 33.44%(male 595,472 /female 688,620)
55-64 years: 4.74%(male 82,197 /female 99,734)
65 years and over: 3.81%(male 62,072 /female 84,350) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 76.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 71 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.3 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 20.7 years (2018 est.)
male: 19.7 years
female: 21.6 years
country comparison to the world: 186

Population growth rate

2.14% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Birth rate

29.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Death rate

7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Net migration rate

-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Population distribution

with most of the country being a desert, vast areas of the country, particularly in the central, northern, and eastern areas, are without sizeable population clusters; half the population lives in or around the coastal capital of Nouakchott; smaller clusters are found near the southern border with Mali and Senegal

Urbanization

urban population: 54.5% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.28% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.259 million NOUAKCHOTT (capital) (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

766 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Infant mortality rate

total: 50.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.6 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 26

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 61.4 years
female: 66.2 years
country comparison to the world: 194

Total fertility rate

3.79 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Contraceptive prevalence rate

17.8% (2015)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 58.4% of population
rural: 57.1% of population
total: 57.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 41.6% of population
rural: 42.9% of population
total: 42.1% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

4.2% (2016)

Physicians density

0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 57.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 13.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 40% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 42.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 86.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 60% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.2% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

5,600 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

12.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 132

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

24.9% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 19

Education expenditures

2.6% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 155

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52.1%
male: 62.6%
female: 41.6% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.2%
male: 14.1%
female: 17% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah
etymology: named for the ancient kingdom of Mauretania (3rd century B.C. to 1st century A.D.), which existed further north in present-day Morocco; the name derives from the Mauri (Moors), the Berber-speaking peoples of northwest Africa

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Nouakchott
geographic coordinates: 18 04 N, 15 58 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: may derive from the Berber "nawakshut" meaning "place of the winds"

Administrative divisions

15 regions (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott Nord, Nouakchott Ouest, Nouakchott Sud, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza

Independence

28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution

history: previous 1964; latest adopted 12 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; consideration of amendments by Parliament requires approval of at least one third of the membership; a referendum is held only if the amendment is approved by two-thirds majority vote; passage by referendum requires simple majority vote by eligible voters; passage of amendments proposed by the president can bypass a referendum if approved by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament; amended many times, last in 2017 (by referendum) (2019)

Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic and French civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mauritania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mohamed Cheikh El GHAZOUANI (since 1 August 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Ould Bedda Ould Cheikh SIDIYA (since 5 August 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers - nominees suggested by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 June 2019 (next scheduled for 22 June 2024); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Mohamed Cheikh El GHAZOUANI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mahamed Cheikh El GHAZOUANI (UPR) 52%, Biram Dah Ould ABEID (independent) 18.6%, Sidi Mohamed Ould BOUBACAR (independent) 17.9%, other 11.55%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Barlamane consists of the National Assembly or Al Jamiya Al Wataniya (157 seats; 113 members in single- and multi-seat constituencies directly elected by a combination of plurality and proportional representation voting systems, 40 members in a single, nationwide constituency directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 4 members directly elected by the diaspora; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: first held as the unicameral National Assembly in 2 rounds on 1 and 15 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA
note: a referendum held in August 2017 approved a constitutional amendment to change the Parliament structure from bicameral to unicameral by abolishing the Senate and creating Regional Councils for local development

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (subdivided into 7 chambers: 2 civil, 2 labor, 1 commercial, 1 administrative, and 1 criminal, each with a chamber president and 2 councilors ); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic to serve a 5-year renewable term; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 1 by the president of the Senate; members serve single, 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; courts of first instance or wilya courts are established in the regions' headquarters and include commercial and labor courts, criminal courts, Moughataa (district) Courts, and informal/customary courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Justice and Democracy/Movement for Renewal or AJD/MR [Ibrahima Moctar SARR]
Burst of Youth for the Nation [Lalla Mint CHERIF]
Coalition of Majority Parties or CPM (includes UPR, UDP)
El Karama Party [Cheikhna Ould Mohamed Ould HAJBOU]
El Vadila Party [Ethmane Ould Ahmed ABOULMAALY]
National Forum for Democracy and Unity or FNDU [Mohamed Ould MAOLOUD] (coalition of hard-line opposition parties, includes RNRD-TAWASSOUL)
National Rally for Reform and Development or RNRD-TAWASSOUL [Mohamed Mahmoud Ould SEYIDI]
Party of Unity and Development or PUD [Mohamed BARO]
Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messaoud Ould BOULKHEIR]
Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]
Ravah Party [ Mohamed Ould VALL]
Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Mintata Mint HEDEID]
Union for Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]
Union of Progress Forces [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]
Union for the Republic or UPR [Seyidna Ali Ould MOHAMED KHOUNA]

International organization participation

ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU (candidate), EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MIUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Mohamedoun DADDAH (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700 through 5701
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2623

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. DODMAN (since 5 January 2018)
telephone: [222] 4525-2660 or [222] 2660-2663
embassy: Avenue Al Quds, Nouadhibou, Nouadhibou Road, Nouakchott, Mauritania

 
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [222] 4525-1592

Flag description

green with a yellow, five-pointed star between the horns of a yellow, upward-pointing crescent moon; red stripes along the top and bottom edges; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; green also represents hope for a bright future; the yellow color stands for the sands of the Sahara; red symbolizes the blood shed in the struggle for independence

National symbol(s)

five-pointed star between the horns of a horizontal crescent moon; national colors: green, yellow

National anthem

name: "Hymne National de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie" (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania)
lyrics/music: Baba Ould CHEIKH/traditional, arranged by Tolia NIKIPROWETZKY
note: adopted 1960; the unique rhythm of the Mauritanian anthem makes it particularly challenging to sing; Mauritania in November 2017 adopted a new national anthem, "Bilada-l ubati-l hudati-l kiram" (The Country of Fatherhood is the Honorable Gift) composed by Rageh Daoud (sound file of the new anthem is forthcoming)

Economy

Economy - overview

Mauritania's economy is dominated by extractive industries (oil and mines), fisheries, livestock, agriculture, and services. Half the population still depends on farming and raising livestock, even though many nomads and subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s, 1980s, 2000s, and 2017. Recently, GDP growth has been driven largely by foreign investment in the mining and oil sectors.Mauritania's extensive mineral resources include iron ore, gold, copper, gypsum, and phosphate rock, and exploration is ongoing for tantalum, uranium, crude oil, and natural gas. Extractive commodities make up about three-quarters of Mauritania's total exports, subjecting the economy to price swings in world commodity markets. Mining is also a growing source of government revenue, rising from 13% to 30% of total revenue from 2006 to 2014. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, and fishing accounts for about 15% of budget revenues, 45% of foreign currency earnings. Mauritania processes a total of 1,800,000 tons of fish per year, but overexploitation by foreign and national fleets threaten the sustainability of this key source of revenue.The economy is highly sensitive to international food and extractive commodity prices. Other risks to Mauritania's economy include its recurring droughts, dependence on foreign aid and investment, and insecurity in neighboring Mali, as well as significant shortages of infrastructure, institutional capacity, and human capital. In December 2017, Mauritania and the IMF agreed to a three year agreement under the Extended Credit Facility to foster economic growth, maintain macroeconomic stability, and reduce poverty. Investment in agriculture and infrastructure are the largest components of the country’s public expenditures.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$17.28 billion (2017 est.)
$16.7 billion (2016 est.)
$16.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 154

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.935 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.5% (2017 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
0.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$4,500 (2017 est.)
$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 173

Gross national saving

24.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 21.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 56.1% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -3.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 39% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -78.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 27.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 29.3% (2017 est.)
services: 42.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn; cattle, camel and sheep

Industries

fish processing, oil production, mining (iron ore, gold, copper)
note: gypsum deposits have never been exploited

Industrial production growth rate

1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Labor force

1.437 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 50%
industry: 1.9%
services: 48.1% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

10.2% (2017 est.)
10.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142

Population below poverty line

31% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

37 (2014)
39 (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Budget

revenues: 1.354 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.396 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

27.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

Public debt

96.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
100% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.3% (2017 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Central bank discount rate

9% (31 December 2009)
12% (31 December 2007)
country comparison to the world: 32

Commercial bank prime lending rate

17% (31 December 2017 est.)
17% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Stock of narrow money

$1.296 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.287 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149

Stock of broad money

$1.296 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.287 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Stock of domestic credit

$2.364 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Market value of publicly traded shares

NA

Current account balance

-$711 million (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Exports

$1.722 billion (2017 est.)
$1.401 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Exports - partners

China 31.2%, Switzerland 14.4%, Spain 10.1%, Germany 8.2%, Japan 8.1% (2017)

Exports - commodities

iron ore, fish and fish products, livestock, gold, copper, crude oil

Imports

$2.094 billion (2017 est.)
$1.9 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners

Belgium 11.5%, UAE 11.3%, US 9.2%, China 7.5%, France 7.4%, Netherlands 6.1%, Morocco 6%, Slovenia 4.8%, Vanuatu 4.7%, Spain 4.7% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$875 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$849.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Debt - external

$4.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.899 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

(31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates

ouguiyas (MRO) per US dollar -
363.6 (2017 est.)
352.37 (2016 est.)
352.37 (2015 est.)
319.7 (2014 est.)
299.5 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 3 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 41.7% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 81% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 2.3% (2016)

Electricity - production

1.139 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Electricity - consumption

1.059 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173

Electricity - installed generating capacity

558,000 kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - from fossil fuels

65% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Electricity - from other renewable sources

20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Crude oil - production

4,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Crude oil - exports

5,333 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Crude oil - proved reserves

20 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Refined petroleum products - consumption

17,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180

Refined petroleum products - imports

17,290 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156

Natural gas - proved reserves

28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

2.615 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 57,057
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 4,074,157
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Telephone system

general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidly; 3 mobile network operators; 3G penetration high; mobile broadband speeds are low; World Bank and European Investment Bank support attempts to improve telecom and improve regulatory measures; efforts to improve backbone of network; auction for fourth mobile provider and 4G service in spring 2019 (2018)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of roughly 108 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals (2018)
international: country code - 222; landing point for the ACE submarine cable for connectivity for 19 West African countries and 2 European countries; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat) (2019)

Broadcast media

10 TV stations: 5 government-owned and 5 private; in October 2017, the government suspended all private TV stations due to non-payment of broadcasting fees; as of April 2018, only one private TV station was broadcasting, Al Mourabitoune, the official TV of the Mauritanian Islamist party, Tewassoul; the other stations are negotiating payment options with the government and hope to be back on the air soon; 18 radio broadcasters: 15 government-owned, 3 (Radio Nouakchott Libre, Radio Tenwir, Radio Kobeni) private; all 3 private radio stations broadcast from Nouakchott; of the 15 government stations, 3 broadcast from Nouakchott (Radio Mauritanie, Radio Jeunesse, Radio Koran) and the other 12 broadcast from each of the 12 regions outside Nouakchott; Radio Jeunesse and Radio Koran are now also being re-broadcast in the regions (2019)

Internet country code

.mr

Internet users

total: 661,913
percent of population: 18% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 12,637
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Military and Security

Military expenditures

3.02% of GDP (2018)
2.91% of GDP (2017)
2.91% of GDP (2016)
2.75% of GDP (2015)
2.7% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 23

Military and security forces

Mauritanian Armed Forces: Army, Mauritanian Navy (Marine Mauritanienne), Islamic Republic of Mauritania Air Group (Groupement Aerienne Islamique de Mauritanie, GAIM); Ministry of Interior: Gendarmerie, National Guard (2019)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 248,158 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5T (2016)

Airports

30 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 115

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Railways

total: 728 km (2014)
standard gauge: 728 km1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 100

Roadways

total: 12,253 km (2018)
paved: 3,988 km (2018)
unpaved: 8,265 km (2018)
country comparison to the world: 128

Waterways

(some navigation possible on the Senegal River) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 7
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 2, oil tanker 1, other 3 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 159

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Nouadhibou, Nouakchott

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara remain dormant

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 26,001 (Western Saharan Sahrawis) (2018); 56,668 (Mali) (2019)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Mauritania is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; adults and children from traditional slave castes are subjected to slavery-related practices rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships; Mauritanian boy students called talibes are trafficked within the country by religious teachers for forced begging; Mauritanian girls, as well as girls from Mali, Senegal, The Gambia, and other West African countries, are forced into domestic servitude; Mauritanian women and girls are forced into prostitution domestically or transported to countries in the Middle East for the same purpose, sometimes through forced marriages
tier rating: Tier 3 - Mauritania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts were negligible; one slavery case identified by an NGO was investigated, but no prosecutions or convictions were made, including among the 4,000 child labor cases NGOs referred to the police; the 2007 anti-slavery law remains ineffective because it requires slaves, most of whom are illiterate, to file their own legal complaint, and the government agency that can submit claims on them did not file any in 2014; authorities arrested, prosecuted, and convicted several anti-slavery activists; NGOs continued to provide the majority of protective services to trafficking victims without support from the government; some steps were taken to raise public awareness about human trafficking (2015)

Flag of Mauritania

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