Maldives

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Introduction

Background

A sultanate since the 12th century, the Maldives became a British protectorate in 1887. The islands became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM dominated Maldives' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following political demonstrations in the capital Male in August 2003, GAYOOM and his government pledged to embark upon a process of liberalization and democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Political parties were legalized in 2005.In June 2008, a constituent assembly - termed the "Special Majlis" - finalized a new constitution ratified by GAYOOM in August 2008. The first-ever presidential elections under a multi-candidate, multi-party system were held in October 2008. GAYOOM was defeated in a runoff poll by Mohamed NASHEED, a political activist who had been jailed several years earlier by the GAYOOM regime. In early February 2012, after several weeks of street protests in response to his ordering the arrest of a top judge, NASHEED purportedly resigned the presidency and handed over power to Vice President Mohammed WAHEED Hassan Maniku. A government-appointed Commission of National Inquiry concluded there was no evidence of a coup, but NASHEED contends that police and military personnel forced him to resign. NASHEED, WAHEED, and Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom ran in the 2013 elections with YAMEEN ultimately winning the presidency after three rounds of voting. As president, YAMEEN weakened democratic institutions, curtailed civil liberties, jailed his political opponents, restricted the press, and exerted control over the judiciary to strengthen his hold on power and limit dissent. In September 2018, YAMEEN lost his reelection bid to Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH, a parliamentarian of the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), who had the support of a coalition of four parties that came together to defeat YAMEEN and restore democratic norms to Maldives. In April 2019, SOLIH's MDP won 65 of 87 seats in parliament.

Geography

Location

Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates

3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references

Asia

Area

total: 298 sq km
land: 298 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 210

Area - comparative

about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

644 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm
contiguous zone: 24nm
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain

flat, with white sandy beaches

Elevation

mean elevation: 2 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: 8th tee, golf course, Villingi Island 5 m

Natural resources

fish

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2011 est.)
arable land: 10% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 10% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 3.3% (2011 est.)
forest: 3% (2011 est.)
other: 73.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago

Natural hazards

tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise

Environment - current issues

depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; inadequate sewage treatment; coral reef bleaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

smallest Asian country; archipelago of 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

People and Society

Population

392,473 (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Nationality

noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups

homogeneous mixture of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, Australasian, and African resulting from historical changes in regional hegemony over marine trade routes

Languages

Dhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials)

Religions

Sunni Muslim (official)

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.62%(male 43,293 /female 41,563)
15-24 years: 19.15%(male 42,849 /female 32,326)
25-54 years: 48.47%(male 106,083 /female 84,160)
55-64 years: 6.22%(male 11,888 /female 12,540)
65 years and over: 4.53%(male 8,101 /female 9,670) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

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Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 38 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 32.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.7 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 28.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 28.4 years
female: 28.8 years
country comparison to the world: 134

Population growth rate

-0.06% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202

Birth rate

16.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Death rate

4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209

Net migration rate

-12.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219

Population distribution

about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago

Urbanization

urban population: 40.2% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 2.93% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

177,000 MALE (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.33 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.26 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.18 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.5 years (2009 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

53 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Infant mortality rate

total: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 76

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76 years (2018 est.)
male: 73.7 years
female: 78.5 years
country comparison to the world: 94

Total fertility rate

1.72 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Contraceptive prevalence rate

34.7% (2009)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

10.6% (2016)

Physicians density

1.04 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths

NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 148

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

17.7% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 33

Education expenditures

4.1% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 97

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.8%
female: 98.8% (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.9%
male: 19.1%
female: 12.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje
etymology: archipelago apparently named after the main island (and capital) of Male; the word "Maldives" means "the islands (dives) of Male"; alternatively, the name may derive from the Sanskrit word "maladvipa" meaning "garland of islands"; Dhivehi Raajje in Dhivehi means "Kingdom of the Dhivehi people"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Male
geographic coordinates: 4 10 N, 73 30 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: derived from the Sanskrit word "mahaalay" meaning "big house"

Administrative divisions

21 administrative atolls (atholhuthah, singular - atholhu); Addu (Addu City), Ariatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Ari Atoll), Ariatholhu Uthuruburi (North Ari Atoll), Faadhippolhu, Felidhuatholhu (Felidhu Atoll), Fuvammulah, Hahdhunmathi, Huvadhuatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Huvadhu Atoll), Huvadhuatholhu Uthuruburi (North Huvadhu Atoll), Kolhumadulu, Maale (Male), Maaleatholhu (Male Atoll), Maalhosmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Maalhosmadulu), Maalhosmadulu Uthuruburi (North Maalhosmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Miladhunmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Uthuruburi (North Miladhunmadulu), Mulakatholhu (Mulaku Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Nilandhe Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Uthuruburi (North Nilandhe Atoll), Thiladhunmathee Dhekunuburi (South Thiladhunmathi), Thiladhunmathee Uthuruburi (North Thiladhunmathi)

Independence

26 July 1965 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution

history: many previous; latest ratified 7 August 2008
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote by its membership and the signature of the president of the republic; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on rights and freedoms and the terms of office of Parliament and of the president also requires a majority vote in a referendum; amended 2015 (2018)

Legal system

Islamic (sharia) legal system with English common law influences, primarily in commercial matters

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Maldives
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ibrahim "Ibu" Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH elected president (in 1 round); Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 58.3%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 41.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or People's Majlis (87 seats - includes 2 seats added by the Elections Commission in late 2018; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2019 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: percent of vote - MDP 44.7%, JP 10.8%, PPM 8.7%, PNC 6.4%, MDA 2.8%, other 5.6%, independent 21%; seats by party - MDP 65, JP 5, PPM 5, PNC 3, MDA 2, independent 7; composition - men 83, women 4, percent of women 4.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4-6 justices; note - 3 justices as of late 2019)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission - a 10-member body of selected high government officials and the public - and upon confirmation by voting members of the People's Majlis; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Criminal, Civil, Family, Juvenile, and Drug Courts; Magistrate Courts (on each of the inhabited islands)

Political parties and leaders

Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Sheikh Imran ABDULLA]
Maldives Development Alliance or MDA [Ahmed Shiyam MOHAMED]
Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]
Maldives Labor and Social Democratic Party or MLSDP [Ahmed SHIHAM]
Maldives Third Way Democrats or MTD [Ahmed ADEEB]
Maldives Reform Movement or MRM [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]
People's National Congress or PNC [Abdul Raheem ABDULLA] (formed in early 2019)
Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM [Abdulla YAMEEN]
Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Qasim IBRAHIM] (2019)

International organization participation

ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador THILMEEZA Hussain (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 801 Second Avenue, Suite 400E, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6194 and 599-6195
FAX: [1] (212) 661-6405

Diplomatic representation from the US

the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; US Ambassador to Sri Lanka and Maldives, Alaina TEPLITZ (since 1 November 2018), is accredited to both countries

Flag description

red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent moon; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag; red recalls those who have sacrificed their lives in defense of their country, the green rectangle represents peace and prosperity, and the white crescent signifies Islam

National symbol(s)

coconut palm, yellowfin tuna; national colors: red, green, white

National anthem

name: "Gaumee Salaam" (National Salute)
lyrics/music: Mohamed Jameel DIDI/Wannakuwattawaduge DON AMARADEVA
note: lyrics adopted 1948, music adopted 1972; between 1948 and 1972, the lyrics were sung to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"

Economy

Economy - overview

Maldives has quickly become a middle-income country, driven by the rapid growth of its tourism and fisheries sectors, but the country still contends with a large and growing fiscal deficit. Infrastructure projects, largely funded by China, could add significantly to debt levels. Political turmoil and the declaration of a state of emergency in February 2018 led to the issuance of travel warnings by several countries whose citizens visit Maldives in significant numbers, but the overall impact on tourism revenue was unclear.In 2015, Maldives’ Parliament passed a constitutional amendment legalizing foreign ownership of land; foreign land-buyers must reclaim at least 70% of the desired land from the ocean and invest at least $1 billion in a construction project approved by Parliament.Diversifying the economy beyond tourism and fishing, reforming public finance, increasing employment opportunities, and combating corruption, cronyism, and a growing drug problem are near-term challenges facing the government. Over the longer term, Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is 1 meter or less above sea level.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$6.901 billion (2017 est.)
$6.583 billion (2016 est.)
$6.3 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 168

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.505 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

4.8% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
2.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$19,200 (2017 est.)
$18,600 (2016 est.)
$18,100 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 93

Gross national saving

0.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
-4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: NA (2016 est.)
government consumption: NA (2016 est.)
investment in fixed capital: NA (2016 est.)
investment in inventories: NA (2016 est.)
exports of goods and services: 93.6% (2016 est.)
imports of goods and services: 89% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3% (2015 est.)
industry: 16% (2015 est.)
services: 81% (2015 est.)

Agriculture - products

coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish

Industries

tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Industrial production growth rate

14% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Labor force

222,200 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 7.7%
industry: 22.8%
services: 69.5% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

2.9% (2017 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Population below poverty line

15% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 33.3% (FY09/10)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

38.4 (2009 est.)
37.4 (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Budget

revenues: 1.19 billion (2016 est.)
expenditures: 1.643 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

26.4% (of GDP) (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-10.1% (of GDP) (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Public debt

63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
61.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.3% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Central bank discount rate

7% (30 September 2017)
7% (30 September 2016)
country comparison to the world: 50

Commercial bank prime lending rate

10.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
10.2% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Stock of narrow money

$908.6 million (31 October 2017 est.)
$865.9 million (31 October 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

Stock of broad money

$1.982 billion (31 October 2017)
$2.043 billion (31 October 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143

Stock of domestic credit

$1.559 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.601 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

Market value of publicly traded shares

$555 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Current account balance

-$876 million (2017 est.)
-$1.033 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Exports

$256.2 million (2016 est.)
$239.8 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188

Exports - partners

Thailand 42.8%, Sri Lanka 8.7%, Bangladesh 6.4%, France 6.2%, US 6.1%, Germany 5%, Ireland 4.6% (2017)

Exports - commodities

fish

Imports

$2.125 billion (2016 est.)
$1.896 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Imports - commodities

petroleum products, clothing, intermediate and capital goods

Imports - partners

UAE 17.1%, India 13.5%, Singapore 13.3%, China 10.8%, Sri Lanka 6.7%, Malaysia 6%, Thailand 4.5% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$477.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$575.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Debt - external

$848.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$696.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$324 million (31 December 2015)
$256 million (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 133

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$448 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$307.7 million (31 December 2015)
country comparison to the world: 98

Exchange rates

rufiyaa (MVR) per US dollar -
15.42 (2017 est.)
15.35 (2016 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

402 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - consumption

373.9 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - installed generating capacity

278,000 kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Electricity - from fossil fuels

96% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Electricity - from other renewable sources

4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172

Refined petroleum products - consumption

11,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Refined petroleum products - imports

10,840 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

1.648 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 20,377
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 900,120
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 229 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Telephone system

general assessment: all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax service; two mobile operators extend LTE coverage;  tourism has strengthened the telecom market with investment; the unusually high mobile penetration rate is also helped by tourism; Internet bandwidth increased 37% in 2016; mobile penetration passes 250% (2018)
domestic: fixed-line is at 5 per 100 persons and high mobile-cellular subscriptions stands at 229 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 960; landing points for Dhiraagu Cable Network, NaSCOM, Dhiraagu-SLT Submarine Cable Networks and WARF submarine cables providing connections to 8 points in Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka; satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

state-owned radio and TV monopoly until recently; 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned TV stations and 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned radio stations (2019)

Internet country code

.mv

Internet users

total: 232,210
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 36,001
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF): Marine Corps, Special Protection Group, Coast Guard (2018)

Military service age and obligation

18-28 years of age for voluntary service; no conscription; 10th grade or equivalent education required; must not be a member of a political party

Military - note

Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF), with its small size and with little serviceable equipment, is inadequate to prevent external aggression and is primarily tasked to reinforce Maldives Police Service (MPS) and ensure security in the exclusive economic zone (2015)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 15 (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

8Q (2016)

Airports

9 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 158

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Roadways

total: 93 km (2018)
paved: 93 km- 60 km in Male; 16 km on Addu Atolis; 17 km on Laamu (2018)
note: island roads are mainly compacted coral
country comparison to the world: 208

Merchant marine

total: 67
by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 27, oil tanker 15, other 24 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 103

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Male

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

none

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Maldives is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and a source country for women and children subjected to labor and sex trafficking; primarily Bangladeshi and Indian migrants working both legally and illegally in the construction and service sectors face conditions of forced labor, including fraudulent recruitment, confiscation of identity and travel documents, nonpayment and withholding of wages, and debt bondage; a small number of women from Asia, Eastern Europe, and former Soviet states are trafficked to Maldives for sexual exploitation; Maldivian women may be subjected to sex trafficking domestically or in Sri Lanka; some Maldivian children are transported to the capital for domestic service, where they may also be victims of sexual abuse and forced labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Maldives does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government adopted a national action plan for 2015-19 and is continuing to develop victim identification, protection, and referral procedures, but overall its anti-trafficking efforts did not increase; only five trafficking investigations were conducted, no new prosecutions were initiated for the second consecutive year, and no convictions were made, down from one in 2013; some officials warned businesses in advance of planned raids for suspected trafficking offenses; victim protection deteriorated when the state-run shelter for female victims barred access to victims shortly after opening in January 2014, in part because of bureaucratic disputes, which dissuaded victims from pursuing charges against perpetrators; the government did not prosecute or hold accountable any employers or government officials for withholding passports (2015)

Flag of Maldives

Descriptive text is not available for this image

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