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A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. After the Japanese invaded Thailand in 1941, the government split into a pro-Japan faction and a pro-Ally faction backed by the King. Following the war, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the US in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government.In early May 2014, after months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013, YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army, led by Royal Thai Army Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, staged a coup against the caretaker government. PRAYUT was appointed prime minister in August 2014. PRAYUT also serves as the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military-affiliated body that oversees the interim government. This body created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution, which was passed in a national referendum in August 2016. In late 2017, PRAYUT announced elections would be held by November 2018; he has subsequently suggested they might occur in February 2019. As of mid-December 2018, a previoulsy held ban on campaigning and political activity has been lifted and per parliamentary laws, an election must be held within 150 days. King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet passed away in October 2016 after 70 years on the throne; his only son, WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, ascended the throne in December 2016. He signed the new constitution in April 2017. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in its southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.



Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 513,120 sq km
land: 510,890 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km
country comparison to the world: 52

Area - comparative

about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries

total: 5,673 km
border countries (4): Burma 2416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1845 km, Malaysia 595 km


3,219 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12nm
exclusive economic zone: 200nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid


central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere


mean elevation: 287 m
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,565 m

Natural resources

tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 41.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 30.8% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 8.8% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 1.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 37.2% (2011 est.)
other: 21.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

64,150 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country

Natural hazards

land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts

Environment - current issues

air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; water scarcity; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting; hazardous waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note

controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore; ideas for the construction of a canal across the Kra Isthmus that would create a bypass to the Strait of Malacca and shorten shipping times around Asia continue to be discussed

People and Society


68,615,858 (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups

Thai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <.1% (2015 est.)
note: data represent population by nationality


Thai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages (includes Malay, Burmese) (2010 est.)
note: data represent population by language(s) spoken at home; English is a secondary language of the elite


Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.3%, Christian 1%, other (2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.73%(male 5,880,026 /female 5,598,611)
15-24 years: 13.83%(male 4,840,303 /female 4,649,589)
25-54 years: 46.12%(male 15,670,881 /female 15,972,254)
55-64 years: 12.35%(male 3,970,979 /female 4,503,647)
65 years and over: 10.97%(male 3,289,576 /female 4,239,992) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

Descriptive text is not available for this image

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 25.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 14.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 6.8 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 38.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 37 years
female: 39.2 years
country comparison to the world: 63

Population growth rate

0.29% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173

Birth rate

11 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Death rate

8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

Population distribution

highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country


urban population: 50.7% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.73% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

10.35 million BANGKOK (capital), 1.289 million Samut Prakan, 1.151 million Chiang Mai, 954,000 Songkla, 950,000 Nothaburi, 901,000 Pathum Thani (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.3 years (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

37 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103

Infant mortality rate

total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 145

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.1 years (2018 est.)
male: 71.9 years
female: 78.5 years
country comparison to the world: 115

Total fertility rate

1.52 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194

Contraceptive prevalence rate

78.4% (2015/16)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 97.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2.2% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

3.7% (2016)

Physicians density

0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 96.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 93% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 7% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.1% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

480,000 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

HIV/AIDS - deaths

18,000 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

10% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 140

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

6.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 75

Education expenditures

4.1% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 100


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.9%
male: 94.7%
female: 91.2% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 3.7%
male: 3%
female: 4.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: Siam
etymology: Land of the Tai [People]"; the meaning of "tai" is uncertain, but may originally have meant "human beings," "people," or "free people

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Bangkok was likely originally a colloquial name, but one that was widely adopted by foreign visitors; the name may derive from "bang ko," where "bang" is the Thai word for "village on a stream" and "ko" means "island," both referencing the area's landscape, which was carved by rivers and canals; alternatively, the name may come from "bang makok," where "makok" is the name of the Java plum, a plant bearing olive-like fruit; this possibility is supported by the former name of Wat Arun, a historic temple in the area, that used to be called Wat Makok;

Krung Thep, the city's Thai name, means "City of the Deity" and is a shortening of the full ceremonial name: Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit; translated the meaning is: City of angels, great city of immortals, magnificent city of the nine gems, seat of the king, city of royal palaces, home of gods incarnate, erected by Vishvakarman at Indra's behest; it holds the world's record as the longest place name (168 letters)

Administrative divisions

76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buri Ram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Saraburi, Satun, Sing Buri, Si Sa Ket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon


1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday

Birthday of King WACHIRALONGKON, 28 July (1952)


history: many previous; latest drafted and presented 29 March 2016, approved by referendum 7 August 2016, signed into law by the king 6 April 2017
amendments: proposed as a joint resolution by the Council of Ministers and the National Council for Peace and Order (the junta that has ruled Thailand since the 2014 coup) and submitted as a draft to the National Legislative Assembly; passage requires majority vote of the existing Assembly members and presentation to the monarch for assent and countersignature of the prime minister (2017)

Legal system

civil law system with common law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, also spelled Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun, (since 1 December 2016); note - King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946) died 13 October 2016
head of government: Prime Minister PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan (since 31 August 2014), WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014), SOMKHIT Chatusiphithak (since 20 August 2015), CHURIN Laksanawisit (since November 2019), ANUTHIN Chanwirakun (since November 2019)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the House of Representatives and Senate approves a person for Prime Minister who must then be appointed by the King (as stated in the transitory provision of the 2017 constitution); the office of prime minister can be held for up to a total of 8 years
note:   PRAYUT Chan-ocha was appointed interim prime minister in August 2014, three months after he staged the coup that removed the previously elected government of Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat; on 5 June 2019 PRAYUT (independent) was approved as prime minister by the parliament - 498 votes to 244 for THANATHON Chuengrungrueangkit (FFP)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Rathhasapha consists of:
Senate or Wuthissapha (250 seats; members appointed by the Royal Thai Army to serve 5-year terms)
House of Representatives or Saphaphuthan Ratsadon (500 seats; 375 members elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 150 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

House of Representatives - last held on 24 March 2019 (next to be held in 2023)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 224, women 26, percent of women 10.4%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PPRP 23.7%, PTP 22.2%, FFP 17.8%, DP 11.1%, PJT 10.5%, TLP 2.3%, CTP 2.2%, NEP 1.4%, PCC 1.4%, ACT 1.2%, PCP 1.2%,  other 5.1%; seats by party - PTP 136, PPRP 116, FFP 81, DP 53, PJT 51, CTP 10, TLP 10, PCC 7, PCP 5, NEP 6, ACT 5, other 20; composition - men 421, women 79, percent of women 15.8%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 14%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice presidents, 60-70 judges, and organized into 10 divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judge term determined by the monarch; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court, and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judges serve for life
subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts

Political parties and leaders

Action Coalition of Thailand Party or ACT [CHATUMONGKHON Sonakun]
Anakhot Mai Party (Future Forward Party) or FFP [THANATHON Chuengrungrueangkit]
Chat Phatthana Party (National Development Party) [THEWAN Liptaphanlop]
Chat Thai Phatthana Party (Thai Nation Development Party) or CTP [KANCHANA Sinlapa-acha]
New Economics Party or NEP [MINGKHWAN Sangsuwan]
Phalang Pracharat Party or PPP [UTTAMA Sawanayon]
Phumchai Thai Party (Thai Pride Party) or PJT [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun]
Prachachat Party of PCC [WAN Muhamad NOOR Matha]
Prachathipat Party (Democrat Party) or DP [CHURIN Laksanawisit]
Puea Chat Party (For Nation Party) or PCP [SONGKHRAM Kitletpairot]
Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [WIROT Paoin]
Puea Tham Party (For Dharma Party) [NALINI Thawisin]
Seri Ruam Thai Party (Thai Liberal Party) or TLP [SERIPHISUT Temiyawet]
Thai Forest Conservation Party or TFCP [DAMRONG Phidet]
Thai Local Power Party or TLP [collective leadership]
Thai Raksa Chat Party (Thai National Preservation Party) [PRICHAPHON Phongpanit]
note: as of 5 April 2018, 98 new parties applied to be registered with the Election Commission in accordance with the provisions of the new organic law on political parties

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Wirachai PLASAI (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael HEATH (since August 2019)
telephone: [66] 2-205-4000
embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
FAX: [66] 2-205-4306
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai

Flag description

five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life, white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism, and blue stands for the monarchy
note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)
note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sanlasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies


Economy - overview

With a relatively well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and generally pro-investment policies, Thailand is highly dependent on international trade, with exports accounting for about two thirds of GDP. Thailand’s exports include electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. The industry and service sectors produce about 90% of GDP. The agricultural sector, comprised mostly of small-scale farms, contributes only 10% of GDP but employs about one third of the labor force. Thailand has attracted an estimated 3.0-4.5 million migrant workers, mostly from neighboring countries. Over the last few decades, Thailand has reduced poverty substantially. In 2013, the Thai Government implemented a nationwide 300 baht (roughly $10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. Thailand’s economy is recovering from slow growth during the years since the 2014 coup. Thailand’s economic fundamentals are sound, with low inflation, low unemployment, and reasonable public and external debt levels. Tourism and government spending - mostly on infrastructure and short-term stimulus measures – have helped to boost the economy, and The Bank of Thailand has been supportive, with several interest rate reductions. Over the longer-term, household debt levels, political uncertainty, and an aging population pose risks to growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.236 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.19 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.152 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 20

GDP (official exchange rate)

$455.4 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.9% (2017 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$17,900 (2017 est.)
$17,200 (2016 est.)
$16,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 99

Gross national saving

34.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 48.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 68.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -54.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 36.2% (2017 est.)
services: 55.6% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products


tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate

1.6% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Labor force

38.37 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 31.8%
industry: 16.7%
services: 51.5% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

0.7% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Population below poverty line

7.2% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

44.5 (2015)
48.4 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 44


revenues: 69.23 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 85.12 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

15.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Public debt

41.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 118

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.7% (2017 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Central bank discount rate

1.5% (31 December 2016)
1.5% (31 December 2015)
country comparison to the world: 128

Commercial bank prime lending rate

4.42% (31 December 2017 est.)
4.47% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Stock of narrow money

$62.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$52.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Stock of broad money

$62.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$52.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Stock of domestic credit

$584.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$508.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Market value of publicly traded shares

$348.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$430.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$354.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Current account balance

$51.08 billion (2017 est.)
$48.24 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10


$235.1 billion (2017 est.)
$214.3 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Exports - partners

China 12.4%, US 11.2%, Japan 9.5%, Hong Kong 5.2%, Vietnam 4.9%, Australia 4.5%, Malaysia 4.4% (2017)

Exports - commodities

automobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products


$203.2 billion (2017 est.)
$177.7 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Imports - commodities

machinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products

Imports - partners

China 20%, Japan 14.5%, US 6.8%, Malaysia 5.4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$202.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$171.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Debt - external

$132 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$130.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$227.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$193.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$117.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$96.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Exchange rates

baht per US dollar -
34.34 (2017 est.)
35.296 (2016 est.)
35.296 (2015 est.)
34.248 (2014 est.)
32.48 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

181.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - consumption

187.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Electricity - exports

2.267 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Electricity - imports

19.83 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Electricity - installed generating capacity

44.89 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Electricity - from fossil fuels

76% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Electricity - from other renewable sources

16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Crude oil - production

228,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Crude oil - exports

790 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Crude oil - imports

875,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Crude oil - proved reserves

349.4 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Refined petroleum products - production

1.328 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Refined petroleum products - consumption

1.326 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Refined petroleum products - exports

278,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Refined petroleum products - imports

134,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - production

38.59 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - consumption

52.64 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199

Natural gas - imports

14.41 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - proved reserves

193.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

355 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2.91 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 121.53 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 178 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Telephone system

general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok; mobile and mobile broadband penetration are on the increase; Fibre-to-the-home (FttH) has seen strong growth in the major cities; 4G TD-LTE and moving to 5G trials; seven smart cities with the hope of 100 smart cities within its borders in the next two decades; one of the biggest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia (2018)
domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 178 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 66; landing points for the AAE-1, FEA, SeaMeWe-3,-4, APG, SJC2, TIS, MCT and AAG submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Africa, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

26 digital TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally, 6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the stations are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2017)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 32,398,778
percent of population: 47.5% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 8.208 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Military and Security

Military expenditures

1.33% of GDP (2018)
1.37% of GDP (2017)
1.44% of GDP (2016)
1.43% of GDP (2015)
1.41% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 91

Military and security forces

Royal Thai Armed Forces (Kongthap Thai, RTARF): Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA, includes paramilitary Thai Rangers (Thahan Phrahan)), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Akaat Thai, RTAF); Interior Ministry paramilitary forces: Volunteer Defense Corps (2018)

Military service age and obligation

21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation based on lottery (2018)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 19 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 276 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 54,259,629 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,134,149,001mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

HS (2016)


101 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 56

Airports - with paved runways

total: 63 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 8 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (2013)
under 914 m: 6 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 38 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2013)
under 914 m: 26 (2013)


7 (2013)


2 km condensate, 5900 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1 km oil, 1097 km refined products (2013)


total: 4,127 km (2017)
standard gauge: 84 km1.435-m gauge (84 km electrified) (2017)
narrow gauge: 4,043 km1.000-m gauge (2017)
country comparison to the world: 47


total: 180,053 km(includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
country comparison to the world: 30


4,000 km(3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 26

Merchant marine

total: 807
by type: bulk carrier 27, container ship 25, general cargo 91, oil tanker 241, other 423 (2018)
country comparison to the world: 27

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
container port(s) (TEUs): Laem Chabang (7,227,431) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Map Ta Phut

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011, Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; approximately 100,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 97,603 (Burma) (2018)
stateless persons: 478,883 (2018) (estimate represents stateless persons registered with the Thai Government; actual number may be as high as 3.5 million); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving
note: Thai nationality was granted to more than 23,000 stateless persons between 2012 and 2016; in 2016, the Government of Thailand approved changes to its citizenship laws that could make 80,000 stateless persons eligible for citizenship, as part of its effort to achieve zero statelessness by 2024 (2018)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, China, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, and India, migrate to Thailand in search of jobs but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in commercial fishing, fishing-related industries, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex trade; some Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, and Indonesian men forced to work on fishing boats are kept at sea for years; sex trafficking of adults and children from Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma remains a significant problem; Thailand is a transit country for victims from China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Burma subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and countries in Western Europe; Thai victims are also trafficked in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, authorities investigated, prosecuted, and convicted fewer traffickers and identified fewer victims; some cases of official complicity were investigated and prosecuted, but trafficking-related corruption continues to hinder progress in combatting trafficking; authorities’ efforts to screen for victims among vulnerable populations remained inadequate due to a poor understanding of trafficking indicators, a failure to recognize non-physical forms of coercion, and a shortage of language interpreters; the government passed new labor laws increasing the minimum age in the fishing industry to 18 years old, guaranteeing the minimum wage, and requiring work contracts, but weak law enforcement and poor coordination among regulatory agencies enabled exploitive labor practices to continue; the government increased efforts to raise public awareness to the dangers of human trafficking and to deny entry to foreign sex tourists (2015)

Illicit drugs

a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns

Flag of Thailand

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