Uganda

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Introduction

Background

The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office. Uganda faces numerous challenges, however, that could affect future stability, including explosive population growth, power and infrastructure constraints, corruption, underdeveloped democratic institutions, and human rights deficits.

Geography

Location

East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references

Africa

Area

total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
country comparison to the world: 82

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,729 km
border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km

Coastline

0 km(landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain

mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation

lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Natural resources

copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

Land use

agricultural land: 71.2% (2011 est.)
arable land: 34.3% (2011 est.)/permanent crops: 11.3% (2011 est.)/permanent pasture: 25.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 14.5% (2011 est.)
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

140 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated

Natural hazards

droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms

Environment - current issues

draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial discharge and water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda

People and Society

Population

40,853,749 (July 2018 est.)
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
country comparison to the world: 35

Nationality

noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups

Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)

Languages

English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic

Religions

Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

Age structure

0-14 years: 47.84%(male 9,753,880 /female 9,789,455)
15-24 years: 21.04%(male 4,250,222 /female 4,347,313)
25-54 years: 26.52%(male 5,422,096 /female 5,412,112)
55-64 years: 2.64%(male 522,637 /female 554,287)
65 years and over: 1.96%(male 351,481 /female 450,266) (2018 est.)
population pyramid:

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Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 101.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 97.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 15.9 years (2018 est.)
male: 15.8 years
female: 16 years
country comparison to the world: 225

Population growth rate

3.18% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Birth rate

42.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Death rate

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Net migration rate

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Population distribution

population density is relatively high in comparison to other African nations; most of the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country, particularly along the shores of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert; the northeast is least populated

Urbanization

urban population: 24.4% of total population(2019)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change(2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

3.318 million KAMPALA (capital) (2019)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

18.9 years (2011 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Infant mortality rate

total: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 22

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 56.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.8 years
country comparison to the world: 217

Total fertility rate

5.62 children born/woman (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Contraceptive prevalence rate

41.8% (2018)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

6.2% (2016)

Physicians density

0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 28.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 17.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 19.1% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 71.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 82.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

5.7% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

1.4 million (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

HIV/AIDS - deaths

23,000 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness) (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

5.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 181

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

10.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 61

Education expenditures

2.6% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 157

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.8%
male: 12.7%
female: 17.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the name "Buganda," adopted by the British as the designation for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

121 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bunyangabu, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Butebo, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Kyotera, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namisindwa, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Omoro, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pakwach, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubanda, Rubirizi, Rukiga, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo

Independence

9 October 1962 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership in the second and third readings; proposals affecting "entrenched clauses," including the sovereignty of the people, supremacy of the constitution, human rights and freedoms, the democratic and multiparty form of government, presidential term of office, independence of the judiciary, and the institutions of traditional or cultural leaders, also requires passage by referendum, ratification by at least two-thirds majority vote of district council members in at least two thirds of Uganda's districts, and assent ofthe president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2017 (2019)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next scheduled to be held February 2021)
election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
head of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both head of state and head of government

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (445 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; up to 18 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 292, FDC 37, DP 5, UPDF 10, UPC 6, independent 66 (excludes 19 ex-officio members)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 6 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, an 8-member independent advisory body, and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also acts as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts; local council courts; family and children courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for National Transformation or ANT [Gregory Mugisha MUNTU]
Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Patrick Oboi AMURIAT]
Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Mull Sebujja KATENDE (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
telephone: [256] 414-306001
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
FAX: [256] 414-306-009

Flag description

six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK

National symbol(s)

grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red

National anthem

name: Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962

Economy

Economy - overview

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, substantial reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, but has recovered lately, largely due to record coffee harvests, which account for 16% of exports, and increasing gold exports, which account for 10% of exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Overall, productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern technology in agriculture, and corruption.Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016 as government spending and public debt has grown. Uganda’s budget is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while Uganda relies on donor support for long-term drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through concessional loans, but at inflated costs. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise.Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as oil production starts in the next three to 10 years. Over the next three to five years, foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, as well as in a $2-3 billion refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highway projects to the oil region.Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Additional economic risks include: poor economic management, endemic corruption, and the government’s failure to invest adequately in the health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity, dropping to 10% in rural areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$89.19 billion (2017 est.)
$85.07 billion (2016 est.)
$83.14 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 89

GDP (official exchange rate)

$26.62 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

4.8% (2017 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$2,400 (2017 est.)
$2,300 (2016 est.)
$2,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 200

Gross national saving

20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 74.3% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 18.8% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -25.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 21.1% (2017 est.)
services: 50.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish

Industries

sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Industrial production growth rate

4.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

Labor force

15.84 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 71%
industry: 7%
services: 22% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

9.4% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Population below poverty line

21.4% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

39.5 (2013)
45.7 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 71

Budget

revenues: 3.848 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.928 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

14.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-4.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Public debt

40% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5.6% (2017 est.)
5.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181

Central bank discount rate

9% (February 2018)
9.5% (December 2017)
country comparison to the world: 34

Commercial bank prime lending rate

21.28% (31 December 2017 est.)
23.89% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Stock of narrow money

$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Stock of broad money

$2.519 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134

Stock of domestic credit

$4.297 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.989 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Market value of publicly traded shares

$7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Current account balance

-$1.212 billion (2017 est.)
-$707 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Exports

$3.339 billion (2017 est.)
$2.921 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Exports - partners

Kenya 17.7%, UAE 16.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.6%, Rwanda 6.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)

Exports - commodities

coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Imports

$5.036 billion (2017 est.)
$4.424 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Imports - commodities

capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals

Imports - partners

China 17.4%, India 13.4%, UAE 12.2%, Kenya 7.9%, Japan 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Indonesia 4.4%, South Africa 4.1% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.654 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.034 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: excludes gold
country comparison to the world: 101

Debt - external

$10.8 billion (22 March 2018 est.)
$11.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$541 million (2017)
NA
country comparison to the world: 128

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

NA

Exchange rates

Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
3,695 (2017 est.)
3,420.1 (2016 est.)
3,420.1 (2015 est.)
3,234.1 (2014 est.)
2,599.8 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 34 million (2017)
electrification - total population: 20% (2017)
electrification - urban areas: 23% (2017)
electrification - rural areas: 19% (2017)

Electricity - production

3.463 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Electricity - consumption

3.106 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity - exports

121 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Electricity - imports

50 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity - installed generating capacity

1.02 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - from fossil fuels

19% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

68% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Electricity - from other renewable sources

12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209

Crude oil - proved reserves

2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Refined petroleum products - consumption

32,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Refined petroleum products - imports

31,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206

Natural gas - proved reserves

14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

4.703 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 262,286
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 24,948,878
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Telephone system

general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; private companies have laid over 1,800 km of fiber optics in Uganda since 2015; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps. (2018)
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems  teledensity about 63 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania

Broadcast media

public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; 31 Free-To-Air (FTA) TV stations, 2 digital terrestrial TV stations, 3 cable TV stations, and 5 digital satellite TV stations; 258 operational FM stations

Internet country code

.ug

Internet users

total: 18,148,923
percent of population: 45.9% (September 2017)
country comparison to the world: 36

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 145,765
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Military and Security

Military expenditures

1.43% of GDP (2018)
1.29% of GDP (2017)
1.26% of GDP (2016)
1.21% of GDP (2015)
1.17% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 81

Military and security forces

Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces, Air Forces, Marine Forces, Special Operations Command, Reserve Force (2019)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military duty (must be single, no children); 9-year service obligation (2019)

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 41,812 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 23,472mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5X (2016)

Airports

47 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 94

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 42 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 26 (2013)
under 914 m: 7 (2013)

Railways

total: 1,244 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,244 km1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 85

Roadways

total: 20,544 km(excludes local roads) (2017)
paved: 4,257 km (2017)
unpaved: 16,287 km (2017)
country comparison to the world: 110

Waterways

(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 1
by type: bulk carrier 1 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 176

Ports and terminals

lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)

Terrorism

Terrorist groups - foreign based

al-Shabaab: aim(s): punish Ugandan Government for participating in African Union military operations against al-Shabaab; compel Uganda to withdraw forces from Somalia
area(s) of operation: aspires to renew attacks in Kampala; no permanent presence (2018)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 857,268 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 389,276 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 45,437 (Burundi), 37,155 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 16,272 (Rwanda) (refugees and asylum seekers), 13,563 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019)
IDPs: 32,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence, land disputes, and cattle raids) (2018)

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