European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire

1 July 1953; effective - 29 September 1954

to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only

members - (22) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

associate members - (5) India, Lithuania, Pakistan, Turkey, Ukraine

observers - (5) EC, Japan, Russia, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), US